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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. two-word stage
  2. mental set
  3. fixation
  4. grammar
  5. babbling stage
  1. a beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language.
  2. b a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past.
  3. c in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others.
  4. d (1) the inability to see a problem from a new perspective, by employing a different mental set. (2) according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved.
  5. e beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly statements made up of only a couple of words.

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. estimating the likelihood of events based on their presence in our memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common.
  2. our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning.
  3. a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence.
  4. a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.
  5. judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to match particular prototypes; may lead us to ignore other relevant information.

5 True/False questions

  1. algorithmin a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix).


  2. linguistic determinismWhorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think.


  3. framingin a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others.


  4. overconfidencethe stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words.


  5. semanticsthe rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language.