5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- functional fixedness
- a the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual uses or purposes; an impediment to problem solving.
- b (1) the inability to see a problem from a new perspective, by employing a different mental set. (2) according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved.
- c a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions.
- d a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier—but also more error-prone—use of heuristics.
- e our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning.
5 Multiple choice questions
- beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly statements made up of only a couple of words.
- a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms.
- a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past.
- a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence.
- the tendency to be more certain than correct—to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments.
5 True/False questions
representativeness heuristic → estimating the likelihood of events based on their presence in our memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common.
linguistic determinism → an effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning.
telegraphic speech → early speech stage in which a child speaks using mostly nouns and verbs such as "go car".
intuition → all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
framing → in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others.