5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- functional fixedness
- two-word stage
- a (1) the inability to see a problem from a new perspective, by employing a different mental set. (2) according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved.
- b beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly statements made up of only a couple of words.
- c the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual uses or purposes; an impediment to problem solving.
- d a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms.
- e in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix).
5 Multiple choice questions
- estimating the likelihood of events based on their presence in our memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common.
- the stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words.
- a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence.
- all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
- beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language.
5 True/False questions
linguistic determinism → Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think.
insight → a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions.
grammar → in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others.
mental set → a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past.
representativeness heuristic → judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to match particular prototypes; may lead us to ignore other relevant information.