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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. fixation
  2. algorithm
  3. language
  4. functional fixedness
  5. insight
  1. a the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual uses or purposes; an impediment to problem solving.
  2. b (1) the inability to see a problem from a new perspective, by employing a different mental set. (2) according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved.
  3. c a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions.
  4. d a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier—but also more error-prone—use of heuristics.
  5. e our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning.

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly statements made up of only a couple of words.
  2. a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms.
  3. a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past.
  4. a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence.
  5. the tendency to be more certain than correct—to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments.

5 True/False questions

  1. representativeness heuristicestimating the likelihood of events based on their presence in our memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common.

          

  2. linguistic determinisman effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning.

          

  3. telegraphic speechearly speech stage in which a child speaks using mostly nouns and verbs such as "go car".

          

  4. intuitionall the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.

          

  5. framingin a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others.