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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. fixation
  2. functional fixedness
  3. two-word stage
  4. heuristic
  5. morpheme
  1. a (1) the inability to see a problem from a new perspective, by employing a different mental set. (2) according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved.
  2. b beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly statements made up of only a couple of words.
  3. c the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual uses or purposes; an impediment to problem solving.
  4. d a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms.
  5. e in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix).

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. estimating the likelihood of events based on their presence in our memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common.
  2. the stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words.
  3. a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence.
  4. all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
  5. beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language.

5 True/False questions

  1. linguistic determinismWhorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think.


  2. insighta sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions.


  3. grammarin a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others.


  4. mental seta tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past.


  5. representativeness heuristicjudging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to match particular prototypes; may lead us to ignore other relevant information.


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