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74 terms

endocrinology

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pituitary gland, hypophysis
secretes hormones that govern hormonal secretions of the other endocrine glands, controlled by the hypothalamus the master gland
adrenal gland (suprarenal gland)
above the kidneys
adrenal cortex
secretes corticosteroids: sex hormones mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoiods, outer region
adrenal medulla
epinephrine (adrenaline) noreephinephrine (noradrenaline) Fight or flight response, sympathetic nervous system (inner region)
hypocalcemia
an abnormally low level of calcium in the blood
genesis
forming
glucogenesis
formatin of glucose
glucosuria, glycosuria
abnormal presence of glucose in the urine
gonads
sex glands
homeostasis
state of equilibrium
kal
potassium
kalemia
prescence of potassium in the blood
thym
thymus gland, important in immune response in children
thymitis
inflamation of the thymus gland
thyromegaly
enlargement of the thyroid gland also called a goiter
endocrine
to excrete (-crine) internally or within ? denotes a ductless gland that furnishes an internal secretion
exo
outside, outward
exocrine
to secrete outwardly ............. denotes a gland that secretes outwardly through excretory ducts
hypokalemia
lower than normal levels of potassuim in the blood
poly
many much
polydipsia
excessive thirst
pancreas
insulin and glucagon produced by the islets of Langerhans (what organ)
parathyroid gland
4 glands superior pair & inferior pair, that produce PTH parathyroid hormone , calcium and phosphate levels
PTH (parathyroid hormone
helps maintain homeostasis of calcium and phosphate by stimulating the bones intestines and kidneys
mineralocorticoids
regulatiion of the electrolyte (mineral salts) concentration in extracellular fluid
glucocorticoids
mainly cortisol help promote normal metabolism.resistance to stress and counterinflammaatory response
Glucagon
produced by the alpha cells stimulates liver ti break down glycogen and amino acids into glucose increases glucose levels
insulin
stimulates the liver to form glycogen from glucose lowers blood sugar
beta cells
after a meal blood glucose rises and ............ release insulin
as insulin level is decreasing
glucogen increases
glucagon and insulin
............and .....................work together to maintain a relatively stable blood glucose concentration
female gonads
ovaries are ?
ovaries produce
estrogen and progesterone adrenal glands,play an important role in preparing the uterus for implantation of fertilized egg. and maintaining pregnancy
testes
produces spermatozoa and testosterone
pineal gland
may secrete melatonin not sure what it does
insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, type 1
occurs mostly in children and adolescents and may be associates with a genetic predisposition. destruction of beta cells of the islets of Langerhans with complete insulin deficiency in the body
non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitis
later in life risk factors family history and obesity insulin produced but body insensitive to insulin
hyperglycemia
abnormally high levels of glucose in the blood
hypoglycemia
deficiency of glucose in the blood
gestational diabetes
diabetes during pregnancy
anterior pituitary gland
glandular:helps body resist stress (ACTH), regulates function of reproductive organs (FSH), (LH), stimulates growth of bones and muscles, stimulates normal development of and secretion of thyroid
stimulates growth of bones and muscles
water balance
cretinism
hypo secretion of thyroid hormone during childhood
myxedema
hyposecretion of thyroid hormone during adulthood. (don't confuse with giantism)
what is the main function of the thyroid gland
regulate metabolism, produces T3 and T4 and calcitonin
acromegaly
Chronic metabolic disease of middle-ged and older persons. It is characterized by enlatged features particularly of the face hands and extremities. Over production of the growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland
giantism
An abnormal condition characterized by excessive growth of the body from hypersecretion of the pituitary gland GH. as a baby
diabetes mellitus
disorder of carbohydrate metabolism. deficiency or complete lack of insulin secretion by beta cells inpancreas or defects of insulin receptors in cells.
diuresis
increased formation and secretion of urine
dwarfism
the condition of being abnormally small hyposecretion of the pituitary gland at birth
exophthalmos
protrusion of eyeballs often a sign of hyperthyroidism
glucosuria, glycosuria
abnormal presence of glucose in the urine resulting from the ingestion of large amounts of carbohydrates or from kidney disease such as nephrosis or from a metabolic disease such as diabetes mellitius.
goiter
enlargement of the thyroid gland poss. due to iodine in the diet etc.
Graves disease
hyperthyroidism also called toxic goiter characterized by goiter and exophthalmos and may be due to autoimmune reaction to yhyroid tissue.
hyperkalemia
excessive amount of potassium in the blood
hyponatremia
a decreased concentration of sodium in the blood
ketosis
the abnormal accumulation of ketones in the body as a result of excessive breakdown of fats caused by a deficiency or inadequate intake of carbohydrates. Fatty acids are metabolized instead and the end products ketones begin to accumulate.
myxedema
the most severe form of hypothyroidism , swelling of hands, face, feet and preorbital around the eyes. (not pituitary) in adults associated with hypothyroidism
polyuria
excretion of an abnormally amount of urine
thyrotoxicosis
also known as a goiter
blood sugar test
measures the level of glucose in the blood
electrolytes measurement of
measurement of the level of ions: sodium, potassium, CO2 and chloride in the blood
fasting blood sugar (FBS)
measure level of glucose in the blood after a 12-hour test
lobectomy
excision of a lobe of an organ
corticosteroids
drugs used to treat inflammatory illnesses including arthritis, asthma, and dermatitis. Also used as replacement hormones for adrenal insufficiency (Addison Disease)
oxytocins
agents that stimulate the uterus to contract inducing labor
gonadotropins
follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone
pituitary
giantism and dwarfism are a result of umproper function of what gland
thyrotomy
incision of the thyroid gland
cretinism, myxedema, Graves Disease, goiter, pituitary, giantisim, pituitary dwarfism , acromegaly
hyposecretion of the thyroid gland during childhood.............hyposecretion of thyroid secretion during adulthood ...................hyposecretion of thyroid hormones most frequently due to................usually associated with a...............hypersecretion of growth hormone during childhood............hyposecretion of growth hormone during childhood............hypersecretion of GH during adulthood.................
adenohypophysis
other name for anterior pituitary gland
neurohypophysis
posterior lobe of the pituitary gland mostly nerve tissue (ADH) vassopressant or antididuritic, oxytocin
ADH antidiuretc hormone
also called vassopressant, ADH is produced by one of the specialized cells in thr hypothalamus and stored in theposterior as needed. The hormone prevents wide swings in water balance helping to avoid dehydration or water overload, hold in fluid, in the fluid are electrolytes
diabetes insipidis
not involving the pancreas but the posterior pituitary