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63 terms

Chapter 2 Solids,Liquids & Gases Test Study Guide

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Solid
A state of matter that has a definite shape and definite volume
Crystalline solids
a solid that is made up of crystals in which particles are arranged in a regular, repeating pattern-melts at a specific temp
Amorphous solid
A solid made up of particles that are not arranged in a regular pattern--does not melt at a distinct temp.
Amorphous solid examples
rubber, plastic, glass,butter
Crystalline solids examples
salt,sugar,snow,quartz
Liquid
a state of matter in the fluid state of matter having no fixed shape but a fixed volume
Fluid
a substance that flows
Surface tension
the result of an inward pull among the molecules of a liquid that brings the molecules on the surface closer together
Viscosity
a liquid's resistance to flow
Gas
a state matter that does not have a definite shape or volume
Melting
The change in state from a solid to a liquid
Melting point
The temperature at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid; the same as the freezing point, or temperature at which a liquid changes to a solid-- water melts at 0ºc
Freezing
the change of state from a liquid to a solid
Vaporization
The change of state from a liquid to a gas
Evaporation
the process that occurs when vaporization takes place only on the surface of a liquid
Boiling
The process that occurs when vaporization takes place inside a liquid as well as on the surface
Boiling point
The temperature at which a substance changes from a liquid to a gas; the same as the condensation point, or temperature at which a gas changes to a liquid
Condensation
The change of state from a gas to a liquid(opposite of vaporization)
Sublimation
The change in state from a solid directly to a gas without passing through the liquid state
Pressure
the force pushing on a surface divided by the area of that surface
Boyle's Law
The relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas at constant temperture
Rule of Boyle's Law
when volume +, pressure -
when volume -,pressure +
Charle's Law
a principle that describes the relationship between the temperature and volume of a gas at constant pressure
Rule of Charle's Law
When temp + , vol. +
When temp - , vol -
Graph
a diagram that shows how two variables are related
Origin
point (0,0) on a graph
Directly Proportional
a term used to describe the relationship between two variables whose graph is a straight line passing through the point (0,0)
Vary Inversely
a term used to describe the relationship between two variables whose graph forms a curve that slopes downward
The greater the speed of the particles in a container, the ___________ the preasure
Greater
The state of matter that changes in volume most easily
Gas
Boyle's Law on a Graph
Vary Inversely(curved)
ManipulatedVariable(x)--Volume(mL,L,cm3..)
Responding Variable(y)--Pressure(kPa)
Temp is kept constant
Charle's Law on a Graph
Directly Proportional(straight)
Manipulated Variable(x)--Temp(K)
Responding Variable(y)--Volume(mL,L,cm3....)
Pressure is kept constant
Curved Graph
Vary Inversely
Straight Graph
Directly Proportional
Pressure Formula
P=F/A
Melting Point Particles
particles of the solid are moving or vibration so fast that they break free from their fixed position
Freezing Point Particles
particles of the liquid are moving so slow that they begin to start to form regular patterns
Boiling Point Particles
vaporized water molecules form bubbles bellow the surface and then start to rise to the surface
Condensation Particles
when particles in a gas lose enough thermal NRG to form a liquid
Sublimation Particles
particles of a solid dont pass through the liquid state as they form the gas
Variables That Gases Are Related/Measured are...
Volume,Pressure,Temp.
Why do tires explode
the temp + there fore the pressure +
How does a Hot Air Balloon Descend/Rise
When the air cools the air becomes more dense. to rise the air is heated and air becomes less dense.
Particles of a solid
fixed,closely packed arrangement of the particles
Particles of a Liquid
are free to move
Particles of a Gas
spread apart filling the space available--in a constant motion
Freezing point
the temperature at which a substance changes from a liquid to a solid-- water freezes at 0ºc
Thermal energy
The total energy of all of the particles in an object
As particles move faster the
thermal NRG rises
Volume
The amount of space that matter occupies
Temperature
a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in an object
Low viscosity
Low resistance to flow
Examples of Low viscosity
water,oil,milk,juice
High viscosity
high resistance to flow
Examples of High viscosity
honey, syrup, glue,molasses
Concentration
the number of particles in a given unit of vol
Why does air leak out of a basketball even though its a small hole
higher pressure in the ball results in gas particles hitting the inter surface more often so particles inside reach the hole more often exasape therefore the pressure inside the ball drops until = to the outside pressure
Examples of sublimation
dry ice,solid air freshener
Solid to liquid to gas
gaining thermal NRG each time
(slow,faster,fastest particle speed)
Solid to gas and liquid to gas
thermal NRG gained
Gas to liquid and liquid to solid
thermal NRG lost
Party balloon in a high temp the volume __________
increases
A balloon will _____ if left out in the hot air after being filled all the way
pop,explode