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AP Human Geography Unit 2 Vocabulary

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activity space
the space within which daily activity occurs
agricultural or (neolithic) revolution
A change in the way people provided sustenance for themselves to domestication of plants and animals, the "directing of evolution." Began around 10000 BCE.
AIDS
a serious (often fatal) disease of the immune system transmitted through blood products especially by sexual contact or contaminated needles
arable land
land that can be used to grow crops
arithmetic growth
a pattern of growth that increases at a constant amount per unit time
arithmetic population or (crude) density
The population of a country or region expressed as an average per unit area. The figure is derived by dividing the population of the areal unit by the number of square kilometers or miles that make up the unit.
awareness space
knowledge of opportunity locations beyond normal activity space
carrying capacity
largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support
chain migration
migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there
circulation
the spread or transmission of something (as news or money) to a wider group or area
critical distance
the distance beyond which cost, effort, and/or means play a determining role in the willingness of the people to travel
crude birth rate
the number of live births yearly per thousand people in a population
crude death rate
The number of deaths per year per 1,000 people.
demographic momentum
this is the tendency for growing population to continue growing after a fertility decline because of their young age distribution. This is important because once this happens a country moves to a different stage in the demographic transition model.
demographic transition
change in a population from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates
demography
the branch of sociology that studies the characteristics of human populations
density
the amount per unit size
dislocation
the act of disrupting an established order so it fails to continue
distance decay
The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.
dot maps
Thematic maps that use points to show the precise locations of specific observations or occurrences, such as crimes, car accidents, or births.
doubling rate
numbers that it takes a population to double in size
emigration
migration from a place (especially migration from your native country in order to settle in another)
endemic
native to or confined to a certain region
epidemiologic transition (mortality revolution)
distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition
ethnicity
an ethnic quality or affiliation resulting from racial or cultural ties
exponential growth
growth pattern in which the individuals in a population reproduce at a constant rate
female infanticide
the intentional killing of baby girls due to the preference for male babies and from the low value associated with the birth of females
forced migration
Permanent movement compelled usually by cultural factors.
geometric rate
Population increases exponentially
gravity model
A model that holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the service.
immigration
migration into a place (especially migration to a country of which you are not a native in order to settle there)
industrial revolution
the transformation from an agricultural to an industrial nation
infant mortality rate
the death rate during the first year of life
in-migration
movement into another region or community
internal migration
Permanent movement within a particular country.
inter-regional migration
Permanent movement from on region of a country to another.
intervening obstacles
Any forces or factors that may limit human migration
intervening opportunity
The presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away.
intra-regional migration
Migration that occurs within a one region.
life expectancy
an expected time to live as calculated on the basis of statistical probabilities
linear growth
Expansion that increases by the same amount during each time interval.
Malthus, Thomas
Was one of the first to argue that the worlds rate of population increase was far outrunning the development of food population. This is important because he brought up the point that we may be outrunning our supplies because of our exponentially growing population.
migration
the movement of persons from one country or locality to another
migration selectivity
Only people exhibiting certain characteristics in a population choosing to migrate.
natural increase
Crude death rate subtracted from crude birthrate
neo-Malthusians
a belief that the world is characterized by scarcity and competition in which too many people fight for few resources. Pessimists who warn of the global ecopolitical dangers of uncontrolled population growth
net migration rate
difference between immigrants and emmigrants per 1,000 people
one child policy
Act in China that allows people to have only 1 child in the city and 2 children in the countryside.
out-migration
when people leave an area looking for jobs
overpopulation
too much population
pandemic
an epidemic that is geographically widespread
physiological population density
the number of people per unit of area of arable land
population concentrations
Places where the most people are usually found.
population explosion
the rapid growth of the world's human population during the past century
population geography
A division of human geography concerned with spatial variations in distribution, composition, growth, and movements of population.
population pyramid
A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex.
pull factor
factor such as freedom or employment opportunities that attract a person to a country
push factor
factor, such as unemployment or the lack of freedom of speech, that makes people want to leave their country and move to another one
race
people who are believed to belong to the same genetic stock
Ravenstein, Ernst
a German-English geographer cartographer and promoter of physical exercise. As a geographer he was less of a traveller than a researcher; his studies led mainly in the direction of cartography and the history of geography.
refugees
People who are forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion.
restrictive population policies
government policies designed to reduce the rate of natural increase
space-time prism
The set of all points that can be reached by an individual given a maximum possible speed from a starting point in space-time and an ending point in space-time.
spatial interaction
the movement of people, goods and ideas within and across geographic space
stationary population level
the level at which a national population ceases to grow
step migration
migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages, for example, from farm to nearby village and later to a town and city
total fertility rate
The number of children born to an average woman in a population during her entire reproductive life
voluntary migration
Permanent movement undertaken by choice.
zero population growth
when the birth rate equals the death rate