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quinine is a(n) __ drug derived from cinchona trees


if an antimicrobial drug is only effective against gram-negative bacteria, it has a(n) __ spectrum


the lowest concentration of antibiotic needed to inhibit bacterial growth in a test system is called the __


a __ factor is a type of plasmid that confers antibiotic resistance

toxic tissue damage, allergic reactions, normal flora disruptions

categories of major drug side effects include


__ are preparations of live microbes used as a preventive or therapeutic measure to displace or compete with potential pathogens


__ are harmful bacteria

allergies, other meds taken, age, health

factors that need to be considered when selecting an antimicrobial for a patient

therapeutic index

the __ is the ratio of the toxic dose to the effective dose that is used to assess the safety and reliability of the drug

selectively toxic

drugs that are __ kill the microbial cells without harming the host cells

RNA or DNA core and protein coat

a virus is an acellular infectious agent composed of:


is an enzyme that hydrolyzes penicillin and is found in penicillin-resistant strains of bacteria


a particular microorganism produces a substance that kills another microorganism in its environment. This is an example of __


new viral drug strategies include exploiting the virus' dependence on the __ cell


the most common complaint associated with oral antimicrobial therapy

normal microbiota

__ are beneficial or harmless resident bacteria commonly found on and/or in the human body

ribosomes, nucleic acids, cell membrane, cell wall

primary sites for action of antimicrobial drugs in bacteria


in life threatening situations sometimes there are __ antimicrobial choices


__ are a group of filamentous, fungus-like bacteria


antimicrobial drug damage may be short term and __

cell wall

the __ is a rigid structure found in bacteria that is made of peptidoglycan and lies just outside the cell membrane


is the pronounced allergic reaction to antigen that leads to severe respiratory and cardiac complications

mycoplasmas, gram negative and gram positive rods and cocci, rickettsias, spirochetes

microbes that can be treated with tetracyclines

micromonospora and streptomyces

produce aminoglycosides


drugs that are effective against fungi have a strong possibility of being toxic to humans because both organisms are __


a __ drug is any agent used in the treatment, relief, or prophlaxis or a disease

quinacrine, tetracyclines, metronidazole, sulfonamides

drugs used to treat protozoal infections


__ chemotherapy is the use of chemotherapeutic drugs to control infection and diseases caused by many types of microorganisms


bacillus polymyxa is the source of __

drug-resistant staph infections, intestinal infections of anaerobes, acne

diseases controlled by clindamycin


ciprofloxacin has recently received a great deal of attention as the drug of choice to treat __


fluoroquinolones are __ spectrum drugs

azidothymidine and acyclovir

__ are analogs of purines and pyrimidines and thereby inhibit viral nucleic acid replication


erythromycin is a macrolide that is composed of a __ ring

transcription; replication

antibiotics that affect nucleic acid synthesis specifically affect the processes of __ and __


__ is used to treat giardia lablia, trichomonas vaginalis, and entamoeba histolytics


cephalorsporins are __ spectrum antibiotics


mebendazole and albendaole are __ spectrum drugs used to treat several roundworm intestinal infections


protein synthesis-inhibiting drugs, such as streptomycin, affect the action of the cell's __

metabolic analog

a compound that mimics the normal substrate for a particular enzyme is called a __

UTI, pneumonia, septicemia

aztreonam is used to control

trimethoprim and sulfonamides

resistance to these drugs develops when microbes deviate from the usual pathway that leads to the production of folic acid


cell wall inhibitor that is typically used to treat staphylococcal infections that are resistant to penicillin and methicillin

nystatin and amphotericin B

antimicrobial drugs that bind to sterols found on cell membranes


the consequences of exposure of a bacterium to an antibiotic that inhibits cell wall formation is __ of the cell


__ are newer derivatives of tetracyclines


antibiotic that may cause bacteria to produce biofilms at a higher rate


an example of an "informed best guess" is the use of __ to treat strep throat because Streptococcus pyogenes is typically sensitive to it

blocking transcription and translation, barring host penetration, preventing maturation

3 major modes of action of antiviral drugs

folic acid

mammals are unaffected by sulfa drugs because they get __ in their diet rather than having to synthesize it

drug resistance

__ is where microbes begin to tolerate an antimicrobial agent at a level which would normally be inhibitory


__ is an all0inclusive term for any drug used to fight infection, regardless of its origin or type


antibiotics that inhibit cell wall formation target the __ that catalyze the formation of the cell walls

trimethoprim, AIDS

__ is used in combination with sulfamethoxazole to treat Pneumocystis infections in __ patients


the use of a drug to prevent imminent infection of a person at risk is called


__ is effective against members of Enterococcus and Staphylococcus


__ are nutrients used to stimulate the growth of favorable biota in the intestine


biofilm bacteria are not affected in the way way as their free-living counterparts by antibiotics because biofilm bacteria express different __ and therefore have different antibiotic sensitivities


an antimicrobial drug that is chemically synthesized in the laboratory is called a _- drug


polymyxins work by interacting with phospholipids in the cell __, thus leading to leakage of cellular constituents


a drug that is isolated from natural sources and then modified in the lab is called a __ drug


substances that are naturally produced by certain microorganisms that can inhibit or destroy other microorganisms are called

broad-spectrum drugs

antimicrobials effective against a wide variety of microbial types are termed


the use of a drug to prevent imminent infection is called

penicillins and cephalosporins

__ block peptidases that cross-link glycan molecules

selective toxicity

__ refers to damage to the target organisms but not vertebrate cells


does not effect cell walls


aminoglycosides attach to the __ ribosomal subunit and disrupt protein synthesis


does not target prokaryotic ribosomes


does not inhibit DNA synthesis


are metabolic analogs of PABA and block folic acid synthesis

folic acid biosynthesis

sulfa drugs work on

competitive inhibitors

drugs that act by mimicking the normal substrate of an enzyme, thereby blocking its active site, are called

beta-lactam ring

ampicillin, amoxicillin, mezlocillin, and penicillin G all have a __


what type of chemical will allow some bacteria to be resistant to many penicillins


which drug is used to treat cases of tuberculosis


all __ consist of a thiazolidine ring, a beta-lactam ring, and an R group

penicilium chrysogenum

the major source of naturally produced penicillin is the mold __


what antibiotic is mixed with neomycin and polymyxin to make an antibiotic ointment (Neosporin) for superficial skin infections?


does not target protein synthesis


are toxic to kidneys, have a narrow spectrum, can treat severe UTI caused by gram negative bacilli, source is Bacillus polymyxa

amphotericin B

the antifungal drug that can be used to treat serious systemic fungal infections is


Ketoconazole, fluconazole, clotrimazole, and miconazole are broad-spectrum azoles used to treat __ infections


the drug used for several protozoan infections is


mebendazole, thiabendazole, and ivermectin are drugs used to treat __ infections


antiviral drugs that target reverse transcriptase would be used to treat


the multidrug resistant __ in many bacterial cell membranes function by removing the drug from the cell when it enters


nutrients that encourage the growth of beneficial microbes in the intestines are known as


broad-spectrum drugs that disrupt the body's normal flora often cause

drug susceptibility testing

determines the pathogen's response to various antimicrobials

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