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if an antimicrobial drug is only effective against gram-negative bacteria, it has a(n) __ spectrum
the lowest concentration of antibiotic needed to inhibit bacterial growth in a test system is called the __
toxic tissue damage, allergic reactions, normal flora disruptions
categories of major drug side effects include
__ are preparations of live microbes used as a preventive or therapeutic measure to displace or compete with potential pathogens
allergies, other meds taken, age, health
factors that need to be considered when selecting an antimicrobial for a patient
the __ is the ratio of the toxic dose to the effective dose that is used to assess the safety and reliability of the drug
is an enzyme that hydrolyzes penicillin and is found in penicillin-resistant strains of bacteria
a particular microorganism produces a substance that kills another microorganism in its environment. This is an example of __
__ are beneficial or harmless resident bacteria commonly found on and/or in the human body
ribosomes, nucleic acids, cell membrane, cell wall
primary sites for action of antimicrobial drugs in bacteria
the __ is a rigid structure found in bacteria that is made of peptidoglycan and lies just outside the cell membrane
is the pronounced allergic reaction to antigen that leads to severe respiratory and cardiac complications
mycoplasmas, gram negative and gram positive rods and cocci, rickettsias, spirochetes
microbes that can be treated with tetracyclines
drugs that are effective against fungi have a strong possibility of being toxic to humans because both organisms are __
__ chemotherapy is the use of chemotherapeutic drugs to control infection and diseases caused by many types of microorganisms
drug-resistant staph infections, intestinal infections of anaerobes, acne
diseases controlled by clindamycin
ciprofloxacin has recently received a great deal of attention as the drug of choice to treat __
azidothymidine and acyclovir
__ are analogs of purines and pyrimidines and thereby inhibit viral nucleic acid replication
antibiotics that affect nucleic acid synthesis specifically affect the processes of __ and __
mebendazole and albendaole are __ spectrum drugs used to treat several roundworm intestinal infections
protein synthesis-inhibiting drugs, such as streptomycin, affect the action of the cell's __
trimethoprim and sulfonamides
resistance to these drugs develops when microbes deviate from the usual pathway that leads to the production of folic acid
cell wall inhibitor that is typically used to treat staphylococcal infections that are resistant to penicillin and methicillin
the consequences of exposure of a bacterium to an antibiotic that inhibits cell wall formation is __ of the cell
an example of an "informed best guess" is the use of __ to treat strep throat because Streptococcus pyogenes is typically sensitive to it
blocking transcription and translation, barring host penetration, preventing maturation
3 major modes of action of antiviral drugs
mammals are unaffected by sulfa drugs because they get __ in their diet rather than having to synthesize it
__ is where microbes begin to tolerate an antimicrobial agent at a level which would normally be inhibitory
__ is an all0inclusive term for any drug used to fight infection, regardless of its origin or type
antibiotics that inhibit cell wall formation target the __ that catalyze the formation of the cell walls
__ is used in combination with sulfamethoxazole to treat Pneumocystis infections in __ patients
biofilm bacteria are not affected in the way way as their free-living counterparts by antibiotics because biofilm bacteria express different __ and therefore have different antibiotic sensitivities
an antimicrobial drug that is chemically synthesized in the laboratory is called a _- drug
polymyxins work by interacting with phospholipids in the cell __, thus leading to leakage of cellular constituents
a drug that is isolated from natural sources and then modified in the lab is called a __ drug
substances that are naturally produced by certain microorganisms that can inhibit or destroy other microorganisms are called
drugs that act by mimicking the normal substrate of an enzyme, thereby blocking its active site, are called
what antibiotic is mixed with neomycin and polymyxin to make an antibiotic ointment (Neosporin) for superficial skin infections?
are toxic to kidneys, have a narrow spectrum, can treat severe UTI caused by gram negative bacilli, source is Bacillus polymyxa
Ketoconazole, fluconazole, clotrimazole, and miconazole are broad-spectrum azoles used to treat __ infections
the multidrug resistant __ in many bacterial cell membranes function by removing the drug from the cell when it enters
nutrients that encourage the growth of beneficial microbes in the intestines are known as
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