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90 terms

BIOL 210 Ch. 12 Learnsmart and Quiz

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antimalarial
quinine is a(n) __ drug derived from cinchona trees
narrow
if an antimicrobial drug is only effective against gram-negative bacteria, it has a(n) __ spectrum
MIC
the lowest concentration of antibiotic needed to inhibit bacterial growth in a test system is called the __
R
a __ factor is a type of plasmid that confers antibiotic resistance
toxic tissue damage, allergic reactions, normal flora disruptions
categories of major drug side effects include
probiotics
__ are preparations of live microbes used as a preventive or therapeutic measure to displace or compete with potential pathogens
pathogens
__ are harmful bacteria
allergies, other meds taken, age, health
factors that need to be considered when selecting an antimicrobial for a patient
therapeutic index
the __ is the ratio of the toxic dose to the effective dose that is used to assess the safety and reliability of the drug
selectively toxic
drugs that are __ kill the microbial cells without harming the host cells
RNA or DNA core and protein coat
a virus is an acellular infectious agent composed of:
penicillinase
is an enzyme that hydrolyzes penicillin and is found in penicillin-resistant strains of bacteria
antagonism
a particular microorganism produces a substance that kills another microorganism in its environment. This is an example of __
host
new viral drug strategies include exploiting the virus' dependence on the __ cell
diarrhea
the most common complaint associated with oral antimicrobial therapy
normal microbiota
__ are beneficial or harmless resident bacteria commonly found on and/or in the human body
ribosomes, nucleic acids, cell membrane, cell wall
primary sites for action of antimicrobial drugs in bacteria
limited
in life threatening situations sometimes there are __ antimicrobial choices
actinomycetes
__ are a group of filamentous, fungus-like bacteria
reversible
antimicrobial drug damage may be short term and __
cell wall
the __ is a rigid structure found in bacteria that is made of peptidoglycan and lies just outside the cell membrane
anaphylaxis
is the pronounced allergic reaction to antigen that leads to severe respiratory and cardiac complications
mycoplasmas, gram negative and gram positive rods and cocci, rickettsias, spirochetes
microbes that can be treated with tetracyclines
micromonospora and streptomyces
produce aminoglycosides
eukaryotes
drugs that are effective against fungi have a strong possibility of being toxic to humans because both organisms are __
chemotherapeutic
a __ drug is any agent used in the treatment, relief, or prophlaxis or a disease
quinacrine, tetracyclines, metronidazole, sulfonamides
drugs used to treat protozoal infections
antimicrobial
__ chemotherapy is the use of chemotherapeutic drugs to control infection and diseases caused by many types of microorganisms
polymyxins
bacillus polymyxa is the source of __
drug-resistant staph infections, intestinal infections of anaerobes, acne
diseases controlled by clindamycin
anthrax
ciprofloxacin has recently received a great deal of attention as the drug of choice to treat __
broad
fluoroquinolones are __ spectrum drugs
azidothymidine and acyclovir
__ are analogs of purines and pyrimidines and thereby inhibit viral nucleic acid replication
lactone
erythromycin is a macrolide that is composed of a __ ring
transcription; replication
antibiotics that affect nucleic acid synthesis specifically affect the processes of __ and __
metronidazole
__ is used to treat giardia lablia, trichomonas vaginalis, and entamoeba histolytics
broad
cephalorsporins are __ spectrum antibiotics
broad
mebendazole and albendaole are __ spectrum drugs used to treat several roundworm intestinal infections
ribosomes
protein synthesis-inhibiting drugs, such as streptomycin, affect the action of the cell's __
metabolic analog
a compound that mimics the normal substrate for a particular enzyme is called a __
UTI, pneumonia, septicemia
aztreonam is used to control
trimethoprim and sulfonamides
resistance to these drugs develops when microbes deviate from the usual pathway that leads to the production of folic acid
vancomycin
cell wall inhibitor that is typically used to treat staphylococcal infections that are resistant to penicillin and methicillin
nystatin and amphotericin B
antimicrobial drugs that bind to sterols found on cell membranes
lysis
the consequences of exposure of a bacterium to an antibiotic that inhibits cell wall formation is __ of the cell
glycylyclines
__ are newer derivatives of tetracyclines
aminoglycosides
antibiotic that may cause bacteria to produce biofilms at a higher rate
penicillin
an example of an "informed best guess" is the use of __ to treat strep throat because Streptococcus pyogenes is typically sensitive to it
blocking transcription and translation, barring host penetration, preventing maturation
3 major modes of action of antiviral drugs
folic acid
mammals are unaffected by sulfa drugs because they get __ in their diet rather than having to synthesize it
drug resistance
__ is where microbes begin to tolerate an antimicrobial agent at a level which would normally be inhibitory
antimicrobial
__ is an all0inclusive term for any drug used to fight infection, regardless of its origin or type
enzymes
antibiotics that inhibit cell wall formation target the __ that catalyze the formation of the cell walls
trimethoprim, AIDS
__ is used in combination with sulfamethoxazole to treat Pneumocystis infections in __ patients
prophylaxis
the use of a drug to prevent imminent infection of a person at risk is called
synercid
__ is effective against members of Enterococcus and Staphylococcus
prebiotics
__ are nutrients used to stimulate the growth of favorable biota in the intestine
genes
biofilm bacteria are not affected in the way way as their free-living counterparts by antibiotics because biofilm bacteria express different __ and therefore have different antibiotic sensitivities
synthetic
an antimicrobial drug that is chemically synthesized in the laboratory is called a _- drug
membrane
polymyxins work by interacting with phospholipids in the cell __, thus leading to leakage of cellular constituents
semisynthetic
a drug that is isolated from natural sources and then modified in the lab is called a __ drug
antibiotics
substances that are naturally produced by certain microorganisms that can inhibit or destroy other microorganisms are called
broad-spectrum drugs
antimicrobials effective against a wide variety of microbial types are termed
prophylaxis
the use of a drug to prevent imminent infection is called
penicillins and cephalosporins
__ block peptidases that cross-link glycan molecules
selective toxicity
__ refers to damage to the target organisms but not vertebrate cells
erythromycin
does not effect cell walls
30S
aminoglycosides attach to the __ ribosomal subunit and disrupt protein synthesis
polymyxins
does not target prokaryotic ribosomes
penicillin
does not inhibit DNA synthesis
sulfonamides
are metabolic analogs of PABA and block folic acid synthesis
folic acid biosynthesis
sulfa drugs work on
competitive inhibitors
drugs that act by mimicking the normal substrate of an enzyme, thereby blocking its active site, are called
beta-lactam ring
ampicillin, amoxicillin, mezlocillin, and penicillin G all have a __
penicillinase
what type of chemical will allow some bacteria to be resistant to many penicillins
isoniazid
which drug is used to treat cases of tuberculosis
penicillins
all __ consist of a thiazolidine ring, a beta-lactam ring, and an R group
penicilium chrysogenum
the major source of naturally produced penicillin is the mold __
bacitracin
what antibiotic is mixed with neomycin and polymyxin to make an antibiotic ointment (Neosporin) for superficial skin infections?
sulfonamides
does not target protein synthesis
polymyxins
are toxic to kidneys, have a narrow spectrum, can treat severe UTI caused by gram negative bacilli, source is Bacillus polymyxa
amphotericin B
the antifungal drug that can be used to treat serious systemic fungal infections is
fungal
Ketoconazole, fluconazole, clotrimazole, and miconazole are broad-spectrum azoles used to treat __ infections
metronidazole
the drug used for several protozoan infections is
helminthic
mebendazole, thiabendazole, and ivermectin are drugs used to treat __ infections
HIV
antiviral drugs that target reverse transcriptase would be used to treat
pumps
the multidrug resistant __ in many bacterial cell membranes function by removing the drug from the cell when it enters
prebiotics
nutrients that encourage the growth of beneficial microbes in the intestines are known as
superinfections
broad-spectrum drugs that disrupt the body's normal flora often cause
drug susceptibility testing
determines the pathogen's response to various antimicrobials