Chapter 1: Anatomy and Physiology of the Heart

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-pericardium -myocardium -endocardiumthe *heart wall* is composed of 3 layers... what are they?pericardiumthe _____ is the *outer space* that covers the protects the heart; consists of *fibrous and serous*fibrous pericardiumwhich part of the *pericardium* -*tough fibrous tissue* -attached to lungs, pleura, sternum, diaphragm, esophagus, trachea, and main bronchiserous pericardiumwhich part of the *pericardium* -contains membrane that forms 2 layers -*parietal layer and visceral layer*parietal layerwhich part of the *serous pericardium* -lines *inner surface of fibrous pericardium*visceral layer (epicardium)which part of the *serous pericardium* -lines *outer furnace* of *myocardium*parietal and visceral (epicardial)the _____ and _____ pericardial layers are separated by the *parietal cavity* to allow room for the heart to beat; both layers also secrete fluid to lubricate and cushion the heartmyocardiumwhat layer of the heart -thick middle muscular layer -responsible for myocardial *muscle contraction*endocardiumwhat layer of the heart -thin *inner layer* -lines heart *chambers and valves*circulatory systemthe _____ _____ is a *closed system* consisting of heart chambers and blood vessel that provide a continuous flow of blood to the body; consists of 2 separate circuitssystemic circuit and pulmonary circuitwhat are the circulatory system' 2 separate circuits?systemic circuit-*large circuit* -includes *left sir of the heart and blood vessels* -*carries oxygenated blood to body* and deoxygenated blood back to right side of the heartpulmonary circuit-*small circuit* -includes *right side of the heart and blood vessels* -*carries deoxygenated blood to lungs* and oxygenated blood back to left side of the heartseptathe interior of the heart consist of 4 hollow chambers separated by walls... what are the walls called?right and left atriathe 2 *upper chambers* that receive incoming bloodright and left ventriclesthe 2 *lower chambers* that pump blood out of the heartinteratrial septumthe _____ _____ separates the 2 atriainterventricular septumthe _____ _____ separates the 2 ventriclessepta_____ divide the heart into 2 pumping systems... right heart and left heartthickensthe *chamer wall's _____* is related to the amount of *pressure* needed to eject bloodright and left atriablood collecting reservoirs; *low pressure* and thin wallsright ventriclepumps blood a *short distance* abasing *low pressure* to the *lungs*; thicker wall than atria, but less than that of the left ventricleleft ventriclepumps blood a *longer distance abasing high pressure in aorta*; this is the *thickest wall*heart valvesthese structures *open and close* through changes in chamber pressure to allow a forward flow of blood and prevent back flow (regurgitation) of bloodatrioventricular valves (AV) -tricuspid -mitral / bicuspid semilunar valves (SV) -aortic -pulmonicthe heart has 4 total valves... what are they?tricuspid valveseparates the right atrium from the right ventriclemitra / bicuspid valveseparates the left atrium from left ventriclechord tendineaeAV leaflets are attached to fibrous cords called _____ _____, which then attach to *papillary muscles* arising from the ventricular floorventricular systolestructure off AV valves promotes blood flow into ventricles and prevents back flow of blood into atria during _____ _____tricuspid and mitralthe first heart sound, *S1* is the product of the _____ and _____ valve *closure*semilunarthe _____ valves have *leaflets shaped like half moons*pulmonic valveseparates right ventricle from pulmonary arteriesaortic valveseparates left ventricle from aortaaortic and pulmonicthe second heart sound *S2* is the product of the _____ and _____ valve *closure*right atrium-receives unoxygenated blood from superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, and coronary sinustricuspid*right atrial pressure increases*, opening the _____ valve and allowing blood to enter the right ventricleatrial kick (S4)toward the end of *ventricular filling, the left atrium contracts*, pumping remaining 30% of blood into the right ventricle... what is this process called?right ventricle-as _____ _____ pressure increase, closing tricuspid valve and opening pulmonic valve -blood is ejected into pulmonary arteries and on to the lunglungs-blood picks up oxygen; carbon dioxide is excretedleft atrial-receives oxygenated blood from lungs via the pulmonary veins -_____ _____ pressure increases, opening mitral valve and allowing blood to enter left ventricleleft ventricle-toward end of ventricular filing, left atrium contracts (atrial kick), pumping remaining 30% of blood into left ventricle -_____ _____ pressure increases, closing mitral valve and opening aortic valve -blood is ejected into aortic and to bodyright coronary artery left coronary artery their branchesblood is *supplied to the heart* by what?right coronary artery-supplies *right atrium and right ventricle* -in 90% of population, supplies the inferior wall of left ventricle, posterior one third of the interventricuar septum, AV node, and bundle of HIS -in 55% of population supplies SA node -*dominant vessel in 90% of population*left anterior descending (LAD)-*supplies anterior wall of left ventricle*, a portion of the lateral wall of the left ventricle, anterior two thirds of interventricular septum and the right and left bundle branchescircumflex-*supplies left atrium*, anterolateral wa of eft ventricle and posterior wall of left ventricle -in 10% of population, supplies inferior wall of LV, posterior one turf of the interventricular septum, AV node, and bundle of HIS -in 45% of population, supplies SA nodeautonomic nervous systemthe heart is under the *control* of the _____ _____ _____ which includes the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systemssympathetic nervous system-stimulation results in release of NE, which increases HR, speeds conduction of impulse, and increases force of ventricular contractionparasympathetic nerous system-stimulation results in release of EACh, which decreases HR, decreases conduction of impulses, and decreases force of ventricular contractionaccelerator inhibitoryin the normal heart a balance is maintained between the _____ effects off the sympathetic system and the _____ effects of the parasympathetic systems