(Ch 3) Methods of Studying Microorganisms & (Ch 4) A survey of Prokaryotic Cells and Microorganisms

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Which microscope has the greatest magnification power?ElectronChemicals used to fix microbial cells are called?Alcohol and FormalinWhat are large masses or mounds of cells, all belonging to a single type of microorganismsColoniesWhat color does gram positive stain?purple/blueWhat color does gram negative stain?red/pinkAnother name for chemically defined media is called?Synthetic mediaUsually contains a mixture of nutrients, they include nutrient agar and broth, they grow a broad spectrum of microbes, and are usually no synthetic. What media is this?General-purpose mediaAt room temperature, agar will always be in which way?SolidWhich term is used to describe a cluster of visible bacteria of the same species on an agar plate?ColonyWhat media is chemically definable?SyntheticCells that are capable of replication and metabolism contain what characteristics?Ribosomes, cell membrane, and chromosomesProkaryotic cells evolved on Earth about how many years ago?3.5 billion yearsBacterial appendages can be divided into which two functional groups?Provide motility Provide attachment sites or channelsAxial filaments and flagellaBacterial appendages can be divided into which two functional groups?Bacteria and ArchaeaWhat external structures used primarily for direct contact interactions with other cells?Fimbriae and PilusViruses are not considered living organisms because they need a host_______cellCellThe movement of an organism away from a chemical repellent is called _______ chemotaxis.negativePeritrichousWhat is the name of a cork-screwed shape bacteria?SpirochetesWhat is the process of adding a microbe to a growth material?InoculationWhat is the material that provides the nutrients for growth?MediumWhat is to cultivate (verb) or observable growth (noun)?CultureWhat is the type of culture most frequently used in the laboratory which contains only a single specie of a microbe?Pure cultureWhat is a second-level culture where an isolated colony from one culture is taken and transferred into a new medium?SubcultureWhat is a culture that contains two or more species which can be easily differentiated?Mixed cultureWhat is a culture that contains one or more unwanted and often identified microbes?Contaminated culture.What test uses macroscopic and microscopic traits for identification?AppearanceWhat test determines chemical characteristics including enzyme production and nutritional requirements of the microbe?Biochemical testsWhat test analyzes the genotype of an organism?DNA profilesWhat tests the organism against known antibodies to determine if there is a reaction between the organism and the antibody?Immunologic testingMicroorganisms called psychrophiles will grow only at low temperatures (at or near 0 degrees). The restriction on a microbe growth would most directly impact what?IncubationThe most widely used type of light microscope is the?Bright-field microscopeAn isolation technique in which an inoculating loop is used to spread a liquid sample over the surface of a solid medium, following a pattern that gradually things out the sample is a?Streak plateNutrient agar is a microbiological growth medium designed to grow a wide variety of bacterial species. The medium contains beef extract, a mix of naturally occurring proteins, sodium chloride, and 1.5% agar. This medium is classified as?General purpose, complex, solid mediumA Petri dish containing isolated colonies of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa would be described as being?Mixed cultureA media that would be the best choice for isolating a bacterial colony is a?Tripticase soy agarAn isolated colony is formed when?A single cell divides many times to a mound of identical cells.What describes a cluster of flagella emerging from the same site?lophotrichousWhat are spiral-shaped bacteria characterized by periplasmic flagella and display a worm-like mode of locomotion?spirochetesWhat filament is a periplasmic flagellum found in some spirochete bacteria?AxialElongated, rigid tubes on gram-negative bacteria that are involved in the transfer of DNA from one cell to another are called which of the following?conjugation piliWhat describes any arrangement of flagella where they are either attached at one or both ends of bacterium?PolarTwisting or flexing of spirochete bacteria is attributed to its:Axial filamentsWhat is the transfer of DNA between bacterial cells?ConjugationWhat is a polysaccharide protective coating outside of the bacterial cell wall that is called either a capsule or slime layer based on its structure?glycocalyxWhat is the structure most closely associated with biofilm formation?Slime LayerWhat does the cell envelope enclose?CytoplasmWhat is the structural difference found in gram-positive cells but not in gram-negative cells?Single cell membraneWhat prevents the rupture of bacterial cells by internal osmotic pressure?Cell wallWhat is the behavior of biofilms which occurs when individual species alter the expression of their genes to cooperate with other cells in the biofilm.Quorum sensingPeptidoglycan is a component of the cell wall of what organism?BacteriaWhat are the antibiotics affect the integrity of the cell wall of bacteria, thereby making them susceptible to lysis?Penicillin and CephalosporinEndotoxin is a toxic to what cells?Human and other mammalian cellsThe cell wall in bacteria is primarily composed of what?peptidoglycanLipopolysaccharide (LPS) is classified as is a(n)EndotoxinThe cell membrane surrounds a complex solution of organic materials and salts that is referred to as what?CytoplasmWhat bacteria naturally have no cell wall, but have a cytoplasmic membrane that is stabilized by sterols?MycoplasmaWhat are the 3 most common shapes of bacterial cells?Bacillus, Coccus, and Spirillum