Organic Evolution BIOL 802

Which of the following is not a claim of the Descent with Modification theory?
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Tomatoes carry a gene called fw2.2 that encodes a protein made during early fruit development―the job of which is to repress cell division. Additionally, researchers have identified a second gene called fas that controls the number of compartments in the mature fruit. Artificial selection leading to the production of very large tomatoes has apparently capitalized on...
A trait that confers a greater level of fitness, relative to those who lack it, is called a(n)...adaptationRegarding the nature of natural selection, which of the following is notan accurate statement?Populations evolve traits by natural selection that will be useful for future environmental changes.What can be defined as the fraction of the variation in a population that is due to differences in genes?Heritability.Darwin developed his theory of natural selection despite having an incomplete and/or inaccurate knowledge base from which to work. Which of the following were problems for Darwin?An understanding of inheritance patterns from one generation to the next. The source of variations in populations. The accepted age of the Earth was far too young to allow for the gradual changes Darwin envisioned.Evolution by natural selection...can be tested both experimentally and observationally.Darwin studied and wrote extensively about the mechanism known as artificial selection. Artificial selection is similar to natural selection, except thatartificial selection produces varieties that would be less likely to be favored in natureEvery node in a phylogenetic tree represents a(n)common ancestorPhylogenetic trees can always be regarded as ________ about evolutionary relationships.hypothesesA novel, derived character is also referred to as a(n)apomorphyA preexisting, ancestral character is also known as a(n)plesiomorphyIn constructing phylogenetic trees, it is useful to think of monophyletic groups as being defined bysynapomorphiesAn ancestor and all of its descendants are known as a monophyletic group or a(n)cladeA group consisting of a common ancestor and some, but not all, of its descendants is known as a ________ group.paraphyleticThe wings of bats and birds and the streamlined body form of sharks and whales represent examples ofconvergenceEstimating the uncertainty of phylogenetic trees using computer-generated replicates from an original data set is known asbootstrappingWhich of the following phylogeny inference tools is the best at reconstructing the most accurate phylogenetic trees?They all have pros and consThe patterns of phenotypes an individual may develop upon exposure to different environments is called its ________.reaction normIn DNA, the substitution of a purine for a purine or a pyrimidine for a pyrimidine is called a(n) ________.transitionThe genetic code, which specifies the three-letter codons coding for particular amino acids, is said to be redundant because ________.some amino acids are coded for by more than one codonChromosome inversions often result from a multistep process initiated by ________.two double-stranded breaks in a chromosomeOrganisms with more than two chromosome sets are said to be ________.polyploidWhich of the following is NOT a type of mutation that is observed?additiveWhich of the following does NOT generate phenotypic variation in individuals?normalizing variationHow do you call a gene variant?alleleHow is called a mutation that doesn't change the amino acid produced?silentWhich statement if false?Genes duplicated by unequal crossing over are usually found away from their parental gene.A hypothetical population has two alleles for a gene: A and a. In a random sample of 100 individuals, 20 are homozygous for a, 20 are homozygous for A, and 60 are heterozygous. What is the frequency of A?50%The null hypothesis, which demonstrates that evolution is not occurring from generation to generation, is known as the ________ model.Hardy-WeinbergIf a population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, which of the following statements is correct?Allele frequencies must remain the same from generation to generation.In large populations, the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium principle can be used to determine whether evolution is occurring. For instances where allelic frequencies are indicated by p and q, the resultant genotype frequencies are indicated by which of the following equations?p2 + 2pq + q2In experiments with laboratory populations of Drosophila melanogaster, Mukai and Burdick (1959) observed that a lethal allele maintained a higher than expected frequency. The explanation for this observation is that, at equilibrium, the selective advantage of the lethal allele when it occurs in heterozygotes balances the disadvantage of the allele in homozygotes, and is termed ________.OverdominaceIn the study of Gigord and colleagues using Elderflower orchids, the allele frequencies of yellow and purple flowers varied such that when the yellow allele started to become rare, the reproductive success of purple flowers decreased and the reproductive success of yellow-flowered individuals increased in a process known as ________.frequency-dependent selectionIn the mating of an Aa female and an Aa male, the genotypic outcome predicted by a Punnett square is AA, one-quarter aa, and one-half AaAt a locus at underdominance, genetic diversity usually ______________.decreases within populations but might be maintained among populationsAs the strength of selection on an allele at a locus increases, the speed of alleles fixation/loss _____________.increasesThe frequency of a deleterious allele at mutation-selection equilibrium depends on _________________.the mutation rate and the selection coefficientThe assumptions of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium principle include all of the following exceptlimited population sizeGene flow through migrationmay have the largest impact on small populations, such as those on islandsSuppose a founding population carries an allelic frequency not typical of the original population. Which of the following effects would most likely lead to homogenization?migration between the original and founding populationsIn terms of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, genetic drift results from a violation ofthe infinite population size assumptionThere are occasions when theoretical expectations do not match with actual outcomes, as you see in the case of zygote formation leading to genetic drift. This discrepancy is known assampling errorWith enough time and in the absence of other evolutionary mechanisms, genetic drift willreduce the genetic variation in a populationIn an evolutionary sense, ________ is the transfer of alleles from one population to another.migrationWhich of the following statements about genetic drift is false?Change in allele frequencies is usually subtle.Genetic DriftIt ultimately leads to loss or fixation of alleles It is stronger in small populations. It can lead to genetic divergence among populationsIn an evolutionary sense, ________ is the transfer of alleles from one population to anothermigrationAs alleles drift to fixation/loss, heterozygositydecreasesWhich statement about inbreeding depression is true?Over time, it can help removing recessive deleterious mutations from populations.When genotypes at one locus of a chromosome are independent of genotypes at another locus of the same chromosome, the two loci arein linkage equilibriumWhich of the following processes can produce linkage disequilibrium?mixing two disparate populations, each of which is in linkage equilibrium genetic drift selection on genotypes of more than one locus ALL OF THE ABOVEThe creation of new combinations of alleles, as a consequence of sexual reproduction with meiosis, is calledgenetic recombinationAn advantage to studying linkage disequilibrium is thatit provides another tool enabling the reconstruction of the history of genes and populationsAlleles that are relatively new to a population and have been subject to positive natural selection are characterized by havinghigh frequency and high linkage disequilibriumWhich of the following choices is NOT a potential disadvantage to sexual reproduction?Sexual reproduction reduces linkage disequilibrium.A principle advantage of sexual reproduction is that itreduces linkage disequilibrium helps to recreate genotypes that are either rare or missing in a population, but are favored by selection regenerates genotypes in the evolutionary "arms race" between parasites and hosts ALL OF THE ABOVE^^Muller's ratchet posits that in a finite asexual population, the number of deleterious alleles will increase over time. The accumulation of these deleterious alleles is calledgenetic loadWhich of the following conditions accurately represent Muller's ratchet, in terms of the selective advantage of sexual reproduction?Sexual reproduction is selected because it reintroduces no-mutation genotypes that have been lost from the population. Linkage disequilibrium increases in populations by genetic drift because no-mutation multilocus genotypes are lost by chance. Deleterious mutations accumulate in asexual populations, resulting in a significant genetic load. ALL OF THE ABOVEWhich is not a criteria for determining that 2 loci are at linkage equilibrium?The genotype at one locus depends on the genotype at the other locusConventional wisdom holds that oxpeckers remove ticks from the backs of cattle on which they feed in a mutualistic relationship, and the cattle tolerate the oxpecker's presence because the birds help remove parasites. Weeks (2000) performed observational experiments in Zimbabwe and demonstrated that the relationship between oxpeckers and cattle was not the removal of parasites but that the oxpeckers arein fact parasitic, and create and feed on wounds they make, and also feed on earwax in the cattleChoose the incorrect statement regarding adaptation from the following:If a trait is adaptive, it will perfectly fit a need that confers an evolutionary advantageIn experiments by Greene and colleagues (1987) with the tephritid fly Zonosemata vittigera and the jumping spider Phidippus apacheanus, the purpose for gluing housefly wings onto the bodies of the tephritid fly was totest for effect of wing markings in preventing predationThe method used to plot the divergence that arises between sister species as they evolve farther and farther from their common ancestor is termedphylogenetically independent contrastsTo demonstrate the response of several Daphnia genotypes across a wide range of environments, Luc De Meester (1996) measured the change in phototactic behavior of Daphnia sampled from lakes that contained different numbers of predatory fish. Some genotypes altered their behavior in the presence versus absence of fish. The variation in response is termedgenotype-by-environment interactionFutuyma and colleagues (1995) used the herbivorous leaf beetles of the genus Ophraella to study constraints in genetic diversity. Ophraellabeetles feed and lay eggs on only certain members of the sunflower family because the beetles are unable todetect and detoxify chemical defenses produced by nonhost plantsFutuyma and colleagues (1995) demonstrated that host shifts by the herbivorous leaf beetles of the genus Ophraella in feeding on members of the sunflower family are due to theavailability of genetic variation sufficient for evolutionary changeWhich of the following statements on observational approaches for testing adaptation is false?They are usually more powerful than experimental approaches.If possible, which type of approach for studying adaptation should you avoid?None. They all have their advantages and limitations.Which of the following is not an obvious curb on adaptation?Phenotypic plasticity.The differences between males and females of a species are calledsexual dimorphismSexual a special case of natural selection.In general, when sexual selection is strong for one sex and weak for the other, we can predict that members of the sex subject to strong sexual selection will be ________, and members of the sex subject to weak sexual selection will be ________.competitive; choosyWhat is the cause of sexual selection?anisogamyWhat is the theory that explains why male ornamentation can be an honest indicator of their genetic quality?Condition-dependent handicapUnder the handicap theory, male display and female preference traits can evolve if...Male display trait is condition-dependent and shows significant phenotypic variance in challenging environments.Bateman gradients describes ...... how reproductive success is explained by mating success.What is the ultimate goal of sexual selection?Optimizing fertilizations.Which group of organisms do not show any sexual dimorphism?Simultaneous hermaphroditesWhy do males of numerous species exhibit characters that decrease their chances of surviving?Because they might increase their reproductive success