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All fat soluble vitamins have the potential for_____due to their ability to be stored in the body for long periods of time


absorption of fat soluble vitamins are dependent on the bodies ability to absorb_______

dietary fat

clients with what diseases will cause a risk for deficiency

crohn's disease, cystic fibrosis, celiac disease, intestinal bypass

clients with ______disease should be careful not to take more than the recommended amount because of build up of the fat soluble vitamin


Vitamin A contributes to

vision health, tissue strength and growth, embryonic development

Vitamin deficiency results in

vision changes, xerophthalmia ( dryness and thickening of the conjunctiva), and changes in the epithelial cells (especially in the mouth and vaginal mucosa

food sources of Vitamin A are

fish liver oils, egg yolks, butter, cream, and dark yellow/orange fruits and vegetables (carrots, yams, apricots, squash, cantaloupe)

Vitamin D contributes to

utilization of calcium and phosphorus, and aids in skin repair

Vitamin D deficiency results in

bone demineralization, extreme deficiency results in rickets

excess consumption of vitamin D can result in


sunlight enables the body to

synthesize vitamin D

Vitamin D food sources are

fortified milk, cod liver oil, and eggs

Vitamin E contributes to

preserve muscles and red blood cells, maintain the myelin sheath

Vitamin E deficiency results in

hemolytic anemia, affects the nerve fibers that influence walking and vision

Vitamin E food sources are

vegetable oils and certain nuts

Vitamin K contributes to

blood clotting and bone maintenance

Vitamin K deficiency results in

increased bleeding time

Vitamin K food sources are

some oils, liver, leafy green vegetables (spinach, broccoli, cabbage)

Vitamin K is used as an antidote for

excess anticoagulants (warfarin, coumadin)

Vitamins are organic substances that are required in ______

minute quantities

Vitamins ______ become part of your body structure

do not

People who take vitamins should limit their intake to_________ of the RDA in a multivitamin product


people who synthetic vitamins in fortified foods or supplements are recommended for are

women capable of becoming pregnant and individuals older than 50 years old

End Of Chapter Questions

End Of Chapter Questions

deficiency in vitamin d causes what


which vitamins are water soluble

B, C

the vitamin that essential to the synthesis of blood clotting factors is

vitamin K

which of the food groups would be the best sources of carotene

apricots, cantaloupe, squash

In general, individuals who elect to take a vitamin supplement should

limit the amount to 150% of the RDA levels

Vitamins are organic substances required for_______reactions


there are 2 classes of vitamins

water soluble
fat soluble

water soluble makes up which vitamins

vitamins C and the b complex

fat soluble makes up which vitamins


vitamins yield _____usable energy for the body


vitamin C aids in

tissue building, metabolic reactions (wound and fracture healing), collagen formation, adrenaline production, iron absorption, conversion of folic acid, cellular adhesion

vitamin C is found in

citrus fruits (oranges, lemons), tomatoes, peppers, green leafy vegetables, and strawberries

_____and illness increase the need for vitamin c


vitamin C deficiency results in

scurvy, hemorrhagic disease with diffuse tissue bleeding, painful limbs/joints, weak bones, swollen gums/loose teeth

sources of b vitamins almost always include__________ unprocessed or enriched grains

leafy green vegetables

Thiamin B1 aids in

proper digestion, peristalsis, provides energy to smooth muscles, glands, the CNS, and blood vessels

thiamin deficiency results in

beriberi, gastrointestinal symptoms, cardiovascular problems

thiamin is found in

in almost all plant and animal tissues, especially meat, grains, and legumes

riboflavin B2 aids in

growth and tissue healing

riboflavin deficiency results in

cheilosis (manifestations include scales and cracks on the lips and mouth), smooth/swollen red tongue, dermatitis in the skin folds

riboflavin is found in

milk, meats, green leafy vegetables

niacin B3 aids in

metabolism of fats, glucose, and alcohol

niacin deficiency results in

pellagra (sun sensitive skin lesions), gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms

niacin is found in

beef liver, nuts, legumes, whole grain, enriched breads and cereals

pantothenic acid B5 aids in

biological reactions (energy production, catabolism, synthesis of fatty acids, phospholipids, cholesterol, steroid hormones, neurotransmitters acetylcholine)

pantothenic acid deficiency results in

anemia, CNS changes, deficiency unlikely due to diverse availability of foods available

pantothenic acid is found in

organ meats, egg yolk, avocados, cashew, nuts and peanuts, brown rice, soy, lentils, broccoli, milk

pyroxidine B6 aids in

cellular function, synthesis of hemoglobin, neurotransmitters, niacin

pyroxidine deficiency results in

anemia and CNS disturbances

pyroxidine is found in

widespread food sources, organ meats, and grains

______ intake of supplements may cause sensory neuropathy


biotin aids in

coenzyme used in fatty acid synthesis, amino acid metabolism, and the formation of glucose

biotin deficiency results in

rare, but results in neurological symptoms such as depression, fatigue, rashes on the skin, especially on the face you can have a "biotin deficient face"

biotin is found in

eggs, milk, and dark leafy green vegetables

folate aids in (folic acid is the synthetic form)

hemoglobin and amino acid synthesis, cellular reproduction, prevention of neural tube defects in utero

folate deficiency results in

megaloblastic anemia, CNS disturbances, fetal neural tube defects

folate is found in

liver, dark leafy green vegetables, citrus fruit, whole grain products, legumes

cobalamin aids in

production of red blood cells

cobalamin deficiency results in

pernicious anemia, seen mostly in strict vegetarians(b12 found solely in foods of animal origin) and those with the absence of intrinsic factor needed for the absorption of B12

cobalamin is found in

beef liver, shellfish, and fortified grains

clients who are unable to be out in sunlight can increase their intake of vitamin D by consuming

eggs and fortified milk

an older adult is prescribed warfarin(coumadin) an anticoagulant, due to a previous heart attack. due to the clotting effects associated with vitamin k, the nurse should advise the client to limit the intake of


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