20 terms

Internet Protocol Suite

Internet protocol suite
the set of communications protocols used for the Internet and other similar networks. It is commonly also known as TCP/IP named from two of the most important protocols in it: the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP), which were the first two networking protocols defined in this standard
End-to-end Principle
a design principle of computer networking. application-specific functions ought to reside in the end hosts of the network rather than in intermediary nodes. Part of Net Neutrality- if they are dumb networks, then less regulable
robustness principle
In general, an implementation must be conservative in its sending behavior, and liberal in its receiving behavior. That is, it must be careful to send well-formed datagrams, but must accept any datagram that it can interpret
The chunks into which the TCP protocol packages data. In addition to the data, each datagram contains information, stored in a header, which is used by the TCP protocol on the receiving end to reassemble the chunks of data into the original message. (13)
a method of designing modular communication protocols in which logically separate functions in the network are abstracted from their underlying structures by inclusion or information hiding within higher level objects.
Link Layer
the networking scope of the local network connection to which a host is attached. This regime is called the link in TCP/IP literature. It is the lowest component layer of the Internet protocols, as TCP/IP is designed to be hardware independent. As a result TCP/IP may be implemented on top of virtually any hardware networking technology.
The link layer is used to move packets between the Internet layer interfaces of two different hosts on the same link. The processes of transmitting and receiving packets on a given link can be controlled both in the software device driver for the network card, as well as on firmware or specialized chipsets. These perform data link functions such as adding a packet header to prepare it for transmission, then actually transmit the frame over a physical medium. The TCP/IP model includes specifications of translating the network addressing methods used in the Internet Protocol to data link addressing, such as Media Access Control (MAC). All other aspects below that level, however, are implicitly assumed to exist in the link layer, but are not explicitly defined.
Internet Layer
has the responsibility of sending packets across potentially multiple networks. Internetworking requires sending data from the source network to the destination network. This process is called routing
Transport Layer
The transport layer establishes a basic data channel that an application uses in its task-specific data exchange. The layer establishes process-to-process connectivity, meaning it provides end-to-end services that are independent of the structure of user data and the logistics of exchanging information for any particular specific purpose. Its responsibility includes end-to-end message transfer independent of the underlying network, along with error control, segmentation, flow control, congestion control, and application addressing (port numbers). End-to-end message transmission or connecting applications at the transport layer can be categorized as either connection-oriented, implemented in TCP, or connectionless, implemented in UDP.
Application Layer
The application layer includes the protocols used by most applications for providing user services or exchanging application data over the network connections established by the lower level protocols, but this may include some basic network support services, such as many routing protocols, and host configuration protocols. Examples of application layer protocols include the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), the File Transfer Protocol (FTP), the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), and the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP).[20] Data coded according to application layer protocols are encapsulated into transport layer protocol units (such as TCP or UDP messages), which in turn use lower layer protocols to effect actual data transfer.
Media Access Control
A Data Link sublayer that examines addressing information contained in a network frame and controls how devices share communications on the same network.
The process of moving a data packet of data from source to destination.
File Transfer Protocol
(Hypertext Transfer Protocol) A standard used to retrieve documents on the World Wide Web
(Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) The main protocol used to send electronic mail from server to server on the Internet.
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a network protocol that enables a server to automatically assign an IP address to a computer from a defined range of numbers (i.e., a scope) configured for a given network.
The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a core protocol of the Internet Protocol Suite. It originated in the initial network implementation in which it complemented the Internet Protocol (IP).
UDP uses a simple connectionlesstransmission model with a minimum of protocol mechanism. It has no handshakingdialogues, and thus exposes any unreliabilityof the underlying network protocol to the user's program. There is no guarantee of delivery, ordering, or duplicate protection. UDP provides checksums for data integrity, andport numbers for addressing different functions at the source and destination of the datagram.
The Internet Protocol (IP) is the principalcommunications protocol in the Internet protocol suite for relaying datagrams across network boundaries. Its routing function enables internetworking, and essentially establishes the Internet.
A checksum or hash sum is a small-size datum from a block of digital data for the purpose of detecting errors which may have been introduced during its transmission or storage. It is usually applied to an installation file after it is received from the download server.
In computer networking, a port is a software construct serving as a communications endpoint in a computer's host operating system. A port is always associated with anIP address of a host and the protocol type of the communication. It completes the destination or origination address of a communications session. A port is identified for each address and protocol by a 16-bit number, commonly known as the port number.