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73 terms

BIOL 210 Ch. 13 Learnsmart and quiz

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infectious dose
the minimum amount of microbes in the inoculating dose
sequelae
diseases that cause long-term or permanent damage leave
biological vectors
animals that participate in the life cycles of pathogens and transmit pathogens from host to host are
infection
occurs when pathogens enter and multiply in body tissues
microbial antagonism
the effect of "good" microbes against invading microbes is called
kinases
dissolve fibrin clots
endotoxin
is indicative of gram negative organisms
symptom
the subjective evidence of disease as sensed by the patient is termed
escherichia
is not a resident biota of the skin
lipopolysaccharide
is an endotoxin
decrease
leukopenia is the __ in the level of WBCs in a patient
cilia
not a method of adhesion
opportunistic pathogens
cause disease in a compromised individual
the patient's own normal biota
endogenous infectious agents arise from microbes that are
period of invasion
the stage of an infectious disease when specific signs and symptoms are seen and the pathogen is at peak activity
proteins
exotoxins are
phagocytosis
once a microbe has entered a host, what process performed by certain WBCs will attempt to destroy the microbes?
streptococcus, haemophilus, bacteroides, lactobacillus
resident biota of the GI tract include
vector
an animal, such as an arthropod, that transmits a pathogen from one host to another is a
streptococcus
which genus is the most common resident biota of the mouth
source
the intermediary object or individual from which the infectious agent is actually acquired is termed the
reservoir
the primary, natural habitat of a pathogen where it continues to exist is called the
inflammation
local edema, swollen lymph nodes, fever, soreness, and abscesses are indications of
sign
the objective, measurable evidence or disease by an observer is termed a
endotoxin
a bacterial toxin that is not ordinarily released but instead is an integral part of gram-negative cell walls
leukocytosis
is an increase in the number of circulating WBCs
leukopenia
is a decrease in the number of circulating WBCs
supports
the human body usually __ resident biota in tissue with contact to the outside and body fluids in exposed body cavities
bacteremia
the presence of viable, but not necessarily multiplying, bacteria in circulating blood
latency
a state of inactive infection
noncommunicable
a __ disease is an infectious disease that does not arise from host to host transmission
immunocompromised; sterile
normal biota can cause infection and disease when the person is __ and when the normal biota is introduced to a previously __ site.
etiologic
the agent that causes an infection and disease is most commonly referred to as the __ agent
focal
a __ infection occurs when an infectious agent breaks loose from a localized infection and is carried by the circulation to another tissue
convalescent period
the time period where a patient is recovering from an infection
vehicle
the general term for an inanimate material (solid object, liquid, or air) that serves as a transmission agent for pathogens
vector
a live animal that transmits an infectious agent
exotoxin
a toxin, usually protein, that is secreted an acts upon a specific cellular target
fomite
any inanimate objet that can serve as a vehicle for the spread of disease when contacted by an infected individual
find evidence, isolate, inoculate, reisolate
koch's postulates in order
ingested
the GI tract is the portal of entry for pathogens contained in __ substances
edema
the accumulation of excess fluid in cells, tissues, or serous cavities
symptom
any subjective evidence of disease that is sensed by the patient
necrosis
defined as the death and disintegration of cells and tissues
inflammation
the natural, nonspecific response to tissue injury or infection to protect the host from further damage
primary
the first infection that predisposes the patient to further infection is called the __ infection
direct
if an agent is transferred from an infected person to another person without an intermediate object, substance, or space, it is said to be __ transmission
fimbriae
short appendage on some pathogenic bacteria that provides adhesion to host cells
asymptomatic
__ carrier is a person with an inapparent infection who shows no symptoms of being infected yet is able to pass the disease agent on to others
pathogenicity
a broad concept that describes an organism's ability to cause disease
respiratory
the largest number of pathogens enter the body thru the __ tract
chronic
an individual who shelters an infectious agent long after recovery is called a __ carrier
nosocomial
an infection that develops while being treated at a hospital or medical facility
universal precautions
the CDC Guidelines for handling of patients and body substances are referred to as the
viremia
the presence of viruses in the stream
intact skin
is not a common site of entry thru the skin
phagocytes
WBCs capable of engulfing other cells and particles
mortality
the number of persons who have died as the result of a particular cause is referred to as the __ rate
acute
__ disease is characterized by rapid onset and short duration
period of invasion
the time period during a clinical infection when the infectious agent multiplies at high levels and obvious signs and symptoms are present
infectious
the pathologic state involving the disruption and destruction of tissues by microbes
exogenous
an infectious agent that originates from outside the body is called
virulence factor
any characteristic or structure of a pathogen that allows it to establish itself in a host or cause damage to the host
disease
__ can be characterized as any deviation from the healthy state
portal of exit
the route thru which a pathogen departs from the host organism
zoonosis
an infection indigenous to animals but naturally transmissible to humans
resident
long term microbial inhabitants of the skin and exposed mucosa, that generally do not cause disease in the host are called __ biota
septicemia
a systemic infection associated with microorganisms multiplying in circulating blood
infectious dose
the minimum number of a microbe that must enter the body in order to cause infection
sneezing and coughing
respiratory pathogens can exit the body most effectively by
exotoxins
have effects on specific cell types
endotoxins
have systemic effects such as fever, inflammation, diarrhea, and shock
pandemic
the spread of an epidemic across continents