Operative Exam 1

___ ___ is the mechanical alteration of a defective, injured, or diseased tooth to best receive a restorative material that will reestablish a healthy state for the tooth, including esthetic corrections where indicated, along w/ normal form and function
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Terms in this set (152)
term: tooth/restoration will not fractureresistanceterm: restoration will not be displacedretentionwhat are the 2 stages in tooth preparation?initial and finalwhat stage of tooth preparation involves: mechanical alteration into sound, supported enamel/dentin w/ specific pulpal and axial depths?initialwhat stage of tooth preparation involves: extensions made to remove remaining carious tooth structure or pre-existing restorations. final adjustments made to the prep form to enhance resistance and retentionfinalThe Initial Stage of Tooth Prep has Substeps: 1. ___ form and initial depth 2. Primary ___ form: sufficient reduction and form so that restoration and tooth don't fracture 3. Primary ___ form: angulation of walls such that restoration will not be dislodged from the prep 4. ___ form: ability to see and operate adequately in surgical field-outline -resistance -retention -convenienceThe Final Stage of Tooth Prep has Substeps: 5. Removal of remaining infected __(tooth layer)__ and/or old restoration 6. __(tooth layer)__ protection, if needed 7. Secondary resistance and retention (ex. ___ grooves/slots) 8. Finish and smooth external walls 9. Clean and inspect-dentin -pulp protection -retentive grooveswhat are the 3 factors that contribute to the operator's decisions on tooth prep form?1. general factors 2. conservation of tooth structure 3. restorative material to be usedTooth Preparation Factors: GENERAL FACTORS include: 1. ___: what is the cause necessitating restoration? how is occlusion? 2. dental ___: what morphological factors will contribute to preparation design and restoration? enamel rods? pulp location? 3. ___ factors: what is the pt's dental IQ? What does the pt desire? Age/habits?1. diagnosis 2. anatomy 3. patientTooth Preparation Factors: CONSERVATION OF TOOTH STRUCTURE FACTOR include: 1. minimizing extensions of the prep dimension, especially in which directions of the tooth? 2. place margins (SUPRAGINGIVALLY/SUBGINGIVALLY) 3. round (INTERNAL/EXTERNAL) angles1. faciolingually, pulpally 2. supragingivally 3. internalTooth Preparation Factors: RESTORATIVE MATERIAL TO BE USED include: -__(material #1)__ due to use of adhesive chemistry, doesn't need rigid dimensions -__(material #2)__: the prep must have enough dimension so that the material is retained and has sufficient bulk to resist fracture -__(material #3)__: in addition to retention and resistance, the prep must allow for seating of restoration and beveled margins for fit-composite resin -amalgam -cast metal (gold inlays/onlays)___ ___ is an infectious microbiologic disease that results in (LOCAL/WIDESPREAD) dissolution and destruction of the calcified tissues of the teeth-dental caries -localwhat are the 2 categories of caries based on Location of Caries?-primary caries -secondary cariesthis type of caries (based on Location of Caries) is an original carious lesionprimary cariesthis type of caries (based on Location of Caries) is a recurrent lesion that appears @ junction of existing restoration and tooth (ex. @ margins)secondary cariesmost common part of tooth for primary caries to develop is in ___ and ___ that result from imperfect coalescence of developmental enamel lobespits and fissureswhere are 3 parts on a tooth that primary caries can form?1. enamel pits and fissures 2. enamel smooth surfaces 3. root surfacesprimary caries that develop along the gumline facially and below the contact area proximally are considered to be on which type of enamel surfaces?smoothprimary caries can form on exposed surface of the ___ where decay can spread more quickly be of lower mineralization in this arearootwhat are the 2 categories of caries based on Extent of Caries?-insipient caries -cavitated cariesthis type of caries is the first evidence of caries activity in enamel. initial demineralization of enamel creates white spots that appear when air-driedincipient cariesincipient caries are REVERSIBLE/IRREVERSIBLE?reversible, can be remineralizedthis type of caries occurs when the enamel surface is broken (there is a hole); restoration is indicatedcavitated cariescarious dentin term: this type of dentin is high in bacterial count, irreversibly demineralized, must be removedouter, infected dentincarious dentin term: this type of dentin has inimal bacterial count, can be remineralized, and can be preservedinner, affected dentinwhat are the 2 categories of caries based on Rate of Caries?-acute (rampant) caries -chronic (slow/arrested) cariesthis type of caries occurs w/ high speed of progression of carious destruction of tooth structureacute/rampant cariesthis type of caries has evidence of past demineralization and subsequent remineralization. the tooth structure usu exhibits dark pigmentation and hardness if caries are arrestedchronic (slow/arrested) cariesdo chronic caries called for preparation/restoration?noNoncarious Tooth Defects term: loss of tooth structure due to direct friction w/ external mediaabrasionNoncarious Tooth Defects term: caused by tooth brushing hardabrasionNoncarious Tooth Defects term: loss of tooth structure due to chemicomechanical actionerosionNoncarious Tooth Defects term: caused by acid action not from bacteria like eating low pH foodserosionNoncarious Tooth Defects term: loss of enamel, usu cervically, due to heavy occlusal force elsewhere on the toothabfractionin abfraction, enamel at which part of the tooth is usually lost because it's the thinnest enamel?enamel @ CEJNoncarious Tooth Defects term: occlusion loading force relatedabfractionNoncarious Tooth Defects term: mechanical wear of occlusal or incisal surface as a result of mandibular movements; tooth on tooth wearattritionPreparation Walls: ____ wall is the prepared surface that doesn't extend to external tooth surfaceinternal wallwhat are the 2 types of internal walls of a prepared tooth?axial, pulpalthis INTERNAL preparation wall is parallel w/ the long axisaxialthis INTERNAL preparation wall is perpendicular to the long axis, occlusal to the pulppulpalPreparation Walls: ____ wall is the prepared surface that extends to external tooth surfaceexternal wallwhat are the 4 types of external walls on a prepared tooth?buccal, lingual, gingival, mesial/distalwhat type of preparation wall is this?axial (internal wall)What is A?pulpal wall (internal)what is this preparation wall type?buccal external wallwhat is this preparation wall type @ J?gingival external wallwhat preparation wall is in light pink?mesial/distal external wall___ preparation walls include the cavosurface margins of the prepexternalBecause the pulpal and gingival preparation walls are ideally flat and perpendicular to the occlusal forces directed occluso-gingivally (parallel to the long axis of the tooth), they are also referred to as pulpal and gingival ____.floorsPreparation Angles: -___ Angle: junction of two planes (ex. junction of axial and pulpal walls is ___ line angle) -___ Angle: junction of three planes (ex. Junction of axial, facial, and gingival walls is ___ point angle) -___ Angle (or Margin): junction of prepared wall and unprepared external surface of tooth-line angle ; axiopulpal point angle -point angle ; axiofaciogingival point angle -cavosurfaceNomenclature of preparation angles: 1. ____- always comes first 2. -___or -___ always come last 3. Mesio /Disto- come before ___/___ and before ___/___1. axial 2. pulpal or gingival 3. facio/linguo ; inciso/occlusoClass of Restoration: Pit and fissure restorations, which include: -Occlusal surface of premolars/molars -Facial/Lingual surface of molars (in the occlusal 3rd ) -Lingual surface of maxillary incisorsClass IClass of Restoration: include proximal surface of posterior tooth (if have M or D surface included)Class IIClass of Restoration: Include proximal surfaces of anterior teeth without involving the incisal angle.Class IIIClass of Restoration: Involve proximal surfaces of anterior teeth and involve incisal edge.class IVClass of Restoration: Involve gingival 3rd of facial or lingual surfaces of any tooth.Class VClass of Restoration: Involve incisal edge of anterior tooth or occlusal cusp height of posterior tooth.Class VIwhich class of restoration of tooth is rarest?class VIHand Instrument Materials: -___ steel: harder but can corrode -___ steel: does not corrode, loses edges -___ has more durable edges, is brittle and can't be used in all designs-carbon steel -stainless steel -carbidewhat are the 3 parts of a hand instrument?-handle/shaft -shank -blade (cutting) or nib (non-cutting)angled shanks of hand instruments are provided for instrument ___balancethe primary cutting edge of an instrument is within _#_ - _#_ mm from the axis of the handle for balance. multiple instrument angles can bring the cutting edge within this mm range.1-2 mminstrument shanks with multiple angles (binangle, triple-angle, quadrangle) are collective called what?contra-angledInstrument Three number formula: 1st: ___ of the blade in tenths of mm 2nd: ___ of the blade in mm 3rd: blade ____ in centigrades1. width 2. length 3. angleInstrument Four number formula: (if blade is angulated) 1st: ___ of the blade in tenths of mm 2nd: ___ ___ ___ angle 3rd: ___ of the blade in mm 4th: blade ___ in centigrades1. width 2. primary cutting edge 3. length 4. angleCutting Edge: -___ bevel: primary cutting edge -___ bevel: secondary cutting edges-single -two___ bevel design instruments are made in pairs as right and left beveled.singleCutting Instruments include: 1. excavators: what are the 2 types? 2. chisels: straight, curved binangle, enamel hatchets, ___ margin trimmers-spoons, hoes -gingivalCarvers are divided into: -(NON-CUTTING/CUTTING) includes anatomical carver, interproximal carver -(NON-CUTTING/CUTTING) includes cleoid-discoid, hollenback carver-non-cutting -cuttingwhich # of mirror sizes are most commonly used? #2, 4, or 5?#4 and 5 -#4 is 7/8" diameter -#5 is 15/16" diameterExplorer has 2 sides: -the _#_ explorer is also called shepherd's hook -the _#_ explorer is traighter w/ a sharp tip-#23 -#17the markings on a perio probe are called what?williams markingswhat are the 2 parts of the amalgam carrier? (1 packs amalgam into carrier, the other depresses the amalgam)-hollow tip -plungerwhat instrument is used for feeling the smoothness of tooth surfaces and examining the quality of margins?explorerwhat instrument is used to measure periodontal pockets to determine gingival health, to measure pulpal floor depth or remaining marginal ridges in a tooth prep?probewhat instrument is a stainless steel instrument to carry mixed amalgam to the cavity prep?amalgam carrierwhat instrument is used to pack amalgam?condenserw/ a condenser, condensation forces are (DIRECTLY/INVERSELY) related to diameter of nibinverselywhat instrument is used to condense amalgam in a small cavity with a prep less than 1 mm in size?markley pluggerwhat instrument has a rounded edge that polishes surface of amalgam restorations? it also burnishes margins to allow restoration margins to be flush w/ adjacent tooth surface?burnishercommon terms for this instrument are: ball, acorn, footballburnisherwhich instrument's nib comes in different shapes like christmas tree, beaver tail, ball?burnisherwhat instrument is used to carry things like cotton rolls to and from mouth?forceps___ forceps allows device to maintain beaks in closed position until released avoiding accidental slippagelockingwhat instrument holds articulating paper? Operator uses paper to check occlusionarticulating paper forcepswhat instrument clamps the end of matrix band and tightens it around a tooth for interproximal caries?tofflemire retainerswhat instrument is used to tighten matrix band around the tooth needing a restoration?automatrix tightening toolwhat instrument cuts the automatrix to allow it to be removed?automatrix snipperwhat instruments usually have a gold coat to make them nonstick? used to place, sculpt, contour dental compositecomposite instrumentswhich composite instruments have no gold coating?8A composite , trico compositewhich instrument is used to mix cement or dycal and then pick up and transfer the dycal to the tooth?mini spatula/dycal instrumentwhat instrument is used to cut hard and soft tissues in the mouth?excavatorswhich instrument has a curved blade w/ outer convexity and inner concavity? it's used for removal of carious dentin?spoon excavatorwhich excavator type has its cutting edge parallel to the handle?spoonwhich excavator type has its primary cutting edge of blade perpendicular to the axis of the handle?hoe excavatorwhich instrument is used to form line angles and planing the tooth prep walls?hoe excavatorwhich broad category of instruments are used to cut enamel?chiselwhich type of chisel has a straight shank and single bevel? primary cutting edge is perpendicular to axis of handlestraight chiselwhich chisel has its shank and blade of chisel slightly curved? Primary cutting edge has D or M bevel so this instrument is double endedWedelstaedt chisel (curved, binangle)which type of chisel is used to cut enamel? it has cutting edges in plane that's parallel to axis of the handle.enamel hatchetwhich type of chisel is used to cut enamel but has a curved blade? it cuts and planes enamel walls and margins?margin trimmerOf the 2 gingival margin trimmers, MT _#_ is used to plane mesial margins, while MT _#_ is used to plane distal margins?MT29 for mesial MT28 for distalwhich instrument is used to contour embrasures of a restoration? used for class II prepsinterproximal carverwhich instrument places intial primary grooves (central groove) on amalgam or composite? has a nib, not bladeanatomical carverwhich instrument is a cutting instrument where one end is used to help in rounding marginal ridges, removing excess amalgam, the other end is used to place anatomy and remove excess amalgam?cleoid-discoidis the 3/6 or the 4/5 cleoid-discoid smaller?4/5which cutting instrument is used to contour and carve the surface of amalgam restorations and carve interproximal areas?hollenback carverRubber Dam Casette: which instrument opens the dental clamps by inserting into its 2 side holes?rubber dam forcepsRubber Dam Casette: which instrument maintains the borders of the rubber dam in position and supports retraction of soft tissue?rubber dam frameRubber Dam Casette: which instrument cuts the rubber dam after use?scissorsRubber Dam Casette: which instrument produces clean cut holes int he rubber dam?rubber dam punchwhich handpiece is used for refining cavity prep and prophylaxis?slow handpieceRotary speed ranges (in revolutions/min): -low or slow speed: below _#_ rpm -medium/intermediate speed: _#_-_#_ rpm -high/ultra speed: above _#_ rpm-12,000 -12,000 - 200,000 -200,000what are the 3 parts of a bur?-head, neck, shankDental Bur Shapes: initial entry, retentive feature, caries removalround (spherical)Dental Bur Shapes: provides undercutsinverted cone (tapered cone)Dental Bur Shapes: class 1- gold foil and amalgampear shape (slightly tapered rounded corners)Dental Bur Shapes: amalgam tooth prepstraight fissure (elongated cylinder)Dental Bur Shapes: indirect restoration, no undercutstapered fissure (slightly tapered cone)___ angle describes angle btwn the leading edge of a cutting tool and a perpendicular area to the surface being cutrake anglerake angle is angle created between the ___ of the blade and ___ of the bur-face of blade -radius of burif rake angle of bur is (NEGATIVE/POSITIVE), the bur has better cutting efficiency?positive(CARBIDE/DIAMOND) bur: better end-cutting, produce low heat, more blade edges per diametercarbide(CARBIDE/DIAMOND) bur: good for initial accesscarbide(CARBIDE/DIAMOND) bur: intracoronal tooth preparationcarbide(CARBIDE/DIAMOND) bur: amalgam removalcarbide(CARBIDE/DIAMOND) bur: small preps, secondary retention featurescarbide(CARBIDE/DIAMOND) bur: involves abrasive cuttingdiamond(CARBIDE/DIAMOND) bur: doesn't involve blade cuttingdiamond(CARBIDE/DIAMOND) bur: used to prep crowns, inlays, onlaysdiamond(CARBIDE/DIAMOND) bur: used for extracoronal prepsdiamond(CARBIDE/DIAMOND) bur: have shorter life span/more pronounced decrease in cutting effectiveness over timediamondrank degree of roughness of each dental bur color from finest to most coarse: 1. green 2. yellow 3. red 4. blue 5. black 6. no color 7. white7, 2, 3, 6, 1, 4, 5hazards w/ cutting instruments: pulpal pain can be caused by: -___ vibration -___ generaton -loss of ___ tubular fluid-mechanical -heat -dentinalultra-fine bur colorwhite ringextra-fine bur coloryellow ringred bur ring is what type of coarseness?fineno ring color is what type of bur coarseness?standardcoarse bur ring color is:green ringblue ring is what type of bur coarseness?super coarseultra coarse bur is what type of bur color?black ring