Chapter 12 test 3 review definition
Terms in this set (56)
the residents in the area from which an official is elected
characterized as having a legislative assembly composed of two chambers or houses' distinguished from unicamera
a type of representation in which representatives have the same racial, gender, ethnic, religious, or educational backgrounds as their constituents. It is based on the principle that if two individuals are similar in background, character, interests, and perspectives, then one could correctly represent the other's views
the type of representation in which a representative is held accountable to a constituency if he or she fails to represent that constituency properly. This is incentive for good representation when the personal backgrounds, views, and interests of the representative differ from those of his or her constituency
holding a political office for which one is running
legally prescribed limits on the number of terms an elected official can serve
the process, occurring after every decennial census, that allocates congressional seats among the 50 states
the process of redrawing election districts and redistributing legislative representatives. This happens every 10 years to reflect shifts in population or in response to legal challenges to existing districts
the apportionment of voters in districts in such a way as to give unfair advantage to one racial or ethnic group or political party
the resources available to higher officials, usually opportunities to make partisan appointments to offices and to confer grants, licenses, or special favors to supporters
pork barrel (or pork)
appropriations made by legislative bodies for local projects that are often not needed but that are created so that local representatives can win re- election in their home districts
a proposal in Congress to provide a specific person with some kind of relief, such as a special exemption from immigration quotas
a gathering of House Republicans every two years to elect their House leaders. Democrats call their gathering the caucus
a normally closed meeting of a political or legislative group to select candidates, plan strategy, or make decisions regarding legislative matters
Speaker of the House
the chief presiding officer of the House of Representatives. The Speaker is the most important party and House leader, and can influence the legislative agenda, the fate of individual pieces of legislation, and members' positions within the House
the elected leader of the majority party in the House of Representatives or in the Senate. In the House, the majority leader is subordinate in the party hierarchy to the Speaker of the House
leader the elected leader of the minority party in the House or Senate
a party member in the House or Senate responsible for coordinating the party's legislative strategy, building support for key issues, and counting votes
a permanent committee with the power to propose and write legislation that covers a particular subject, such as finance or agriculture
(usually) temporary legislative committees set up to highlight or investigate a particular issue or address an issue not within the jurisdiction of existing committees
legislative committees formed of members of both the House and Senate
joint committees created to work out a compromise on House and Senate versions of a piece of legislation
the ranking given to an individual on the basis of length of continuous service on a committee in Congress
legislative support agencies responsible for policy analysis
associations of members of Congress based on party, interest, or social group, such as gender or race
a proposed law that has been sponsored by a member of Congress and submitted to the clerk of the House or Senate
the session in which a congressional committee rewrites legislation to incorporate changes discussed during hearings on the bill
a provision by the House Rules Committee limiting or prohibiting the introduction of amendments during debate
a provision by the House Rules Committee that permits floor debate and the addition of new amendments to a bill
a tactic used by members of the Senate to prevent action on legislation they oppose by continuously holding the floor and speaking until the majority backs down. Once given the floor, senators have unlimited time to speak, and it requires a vote of three-fifths of the Senate to end a filibuster
a rule allowing a majority of two-thirds or three-fifths of the members of a legislative body to set a time limit on debate over a given bill. In the U.S. Senate, 60 senators (three-fifths) must agree in order to impose such a limit
the president's constitutional power to turn down acts of Congress. A presidential veto may be overridden by a two-thirds vote of each house of Congress
a presidential veto that is automatically triggered if the president does not act on a given piece of legislation passed during the final 10 days of a legislative session
party unity vote
a roll-call vote in the House or Senate in which at least 50 percent of the members of one party take a particular position and are opposed by at least 50 percent of the members of the other party
a vote in which each legislator's yes or no vote is recorded as the clerk calls the names of the members alphabetically
a legislative practice whereby agreements are made between legislators in voting for or against a bill; vote trading
the effort by Congress, through hearings, investigations, and other techniques, to exercise control over the activities of executive agencies
the amounts of money approved by Congress in statutes (bills) that each unit or agency of government can spend
an agreement, made between the president and another country, that has the force of a treaty but does not require the Senate's "advice and consent"
the formal charge by the House of Representatives that a government official has committed "Treason, Bribery,
or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors"
a representative who votes according to the preferences of his or her constituency
a representative who votes based on what he or she thinks is best for his or her constituency
1.Because they have larger and more heterogeneous constituencies, senators (pp. 471-72)
a) have less freedom to consider "new ideas" or to
bring together new coalitions of interests.
b) are more attuned to the needs of localized interest
c) care more about re-election than House members.
d) can better represent the national interest.
e) face less competition in elections than House
2 What type of representation is described when constituents have the power to hire and fire their representative? (p. 472)
a) agency representation
b) sociological representation
c) democratic representation
d) trustee representation
e) economic representation
Sociological representation is important in understanding the U.S. Congress because (p. 475)
a) members often vote on the basis of their religion.
b) Congress is a microcosm of American society.
c) most people vote for people who are just like them.
d) the symbolic composition of Congress is important
for the authority of the government.
e) there is a distinct "congressional sociology."
Some have argued that the creation of minority congressional districts has (p. 481)
a) made it easier to draw districts.
b) lessened the sociological representation of
minorities in Congress.
c) made it more difficult for minorities to win
substantive policy goals.
d) been a result of the media's impact on state
e) lessened the problem of "pork-barrel" politics.
One way members of Congress can work as agents of their constituents is by (p. 482)
a) providing direct patronage.
b) taking part in a party vote.
c)joining a caucus.
d) supporting term limits.
e) spending time on fund-raising for their re-election
Which of the following types of committees does not include members of both the House and the Senate? (pp. 485-89)
a) conference committee
b) joint committee
c) 527 committees
d) No committees include both House members and
A series of reforms instituted by Congress in the 1970s, including an increase in the number of sub- committees and greater autonomy for subcommittee chairs, was intended to (p. 489)
a) reduce the power of committee chairs.
b) increase the power of committee chairs.
c) secure re-election for all committee chairs.
d) ending the filibuster.
e) guarantee the electoral defeat of all committee chairs.
The difference between a closed rule and an open rule in the House is (p. 493) a) a closed rule puts severe limits on floor debate and
amendments, whereas an open rule permits floor
debate and makes amendments easier.
b) an open rule puts severe limits on floor debate and
amendments, whereas a closed rule permits floor
debate and makes amendments easier.
c) a closed rule allows journalists and members of the
public to listen to debates about a bill, whereas an open rule prevents journalists and members of the public from listening to debates about the bill.
d) an open rule allows journalists and members of the public to listen to debates about a bill, whereas a closed rule prevents journalists and members of the public from listening to debates about the bill.
e) a closed rule prevents the federal judiciary from declaring a bill unconstitutional once passed, whereas an open rule allows the federal judiciary to declare a bill unconstitutional.
Which of the following is not a technique that can be used to block debate about a bill in the Senate? (pp. 493-94)
c)the introduction of new amendments
e) placing holds on bills
Which of the following is not an important influence on how members of Congress vote on legislation? (p. 496)
a) the media
d) interest groups
e) party leaders
Which of the following is not a resource that party lead- ers in Congress use to create party discipline? (pp. 498-502)
a) leadership PACs
b) committee assignments
c) access to the floor
d) the whip system
e) roll-call votes
An agreement between members of Congress to trade support for each other's bills is known as (p. 501)
When Congress conducts an investigation to explore the relationship between what a law intended and what an executive agency has done, it is engaged in (p. 504)
b) advice and consent.
d) executive agreement.
e) direct patronage.
Which of the following statements about impeachment is not true? (pp. 505-7)
a) The president is the only official who can be
impeached by Congress
b) Impeachment means to charge a government official with "Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors."
c) The House of Representatives decides by simple majority vote whether the accused ought to be impeached.
d) The Senate decides whether to convict and remove the person from office.
e) There have only been two instances of impeach- mentinAmericanhistory.
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