Jean Piaget Theory & Terms 2023

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Cognitive Development
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Terms in this set (19)
is the force, which moves development along. An unpleasant state of disequilibrium happens when new information cannot be fitted into existing schemas (assimilation). Equilibration is the force which drives the learning process as we do not like to be frustrated and will seek to restore balance by mastering the new challenge (accommodation). Once the new information is acquired the process of assimilation with the new schema will continue until the next time we need to make an adjustment to it.
ConservationThe realisation that objects or sets of objects stay the same even when they are changed about or made to look different.DecentrationThe ability to move away from one system of classification to another one as appropriate.EgocentrismThe belief that you are the centre of the universe and everything revolves around you: the corresponding inability to see the world as someone else does and adapt to it. Not moral "selfishness", just an early stage of psychological development.OperationThe process of working something out in your head. Young children (in the sensori-motor and pre-operational stages) have to act, and try things out in the real world, to work things out (like count on fingers): older children and adults can do more in their heads.StageA period in a child's development in which he or she is capable of understanding some things but not othersSensori-Motor (Birth - 2)Differentiates self from objects Recognizes self as agent of action and begins to act intentionally: e.g. pulls a string to set mobile in motion or shakes a rattle to make a noise Achieves object permanence: realizes that things continue to exist even when no longer present to the sense (pace Bishop Berkeley)Pre-Operational (2-7 years)Learns to use language and to represent objects by images and words Thinking is still egocentric: has difficulty taking the viewpoint of others Classifies objects by a single feature: e.g. groups together all the red blocks regardless of shape or all the square blocks regardless of colorConcrete Operational (7-11 years)Can think logically about objects and events Achieves conservation of number (age 6), mass (age 7), and weight (age 9) Classifies objects according to several features and can order them in series along a single dimension such as size.Formal Operational (11 years and up)Can think logically about abstract propositions and test hypotheses systematically Becomes concerned with the hypothetical, the future, and ideological problems