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a nerve cell; an electrically excitable cell specialized for producing and transmitting action potentials and secreting chemicals that stimulate adjacent cells
peripheral nervous system
consists of all nerves and and ganglia; all of the nervous system except the brain and spinal cord
somatic nervous system
a division of the nervous system that includes efferent fibers mainly from the skin, muscles, and skeleton and afferent fibers to the skeletal muscles
autonomic nervous system
a motor division of the nervous system that innervates glands, smooth muscle, and cardiac muscle; consists of sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions and functions largely without voluntary control
any of the 12 pairs of nerves connected to the base of the brain and passing through the foramina of the cranium
any of the 31 pairs of nerves that arise from the spinal cord and pass through the intervertebral foramina
sympathetic nervous system
a division of the autonomic nervous system that issues efferent fibers through the thoracic and lumbar nerves and usually exerts adrenergic effects on its target organs; includes a chain of paravertebral ganglia adjacent to the vertebral column, and the adrenal medulla
a process of a neuron that transmits action potentials; also called a nerve fiber. There is only one axon to a neuron and it is usually much longer and less branched than the dendrites.
an extensive complex of fine branches at the end of an axon; also called the terminal aborization
processes of a neuron that receive information from other cells or environmental stimuli and conduct signals to the soma. Dendrites are usually shorter, more branched, and more numerous than the axon and are incapable of producing action potentials
cells that envelop nerve fibers in the PNS. They produce a myelin sheath, and they also assist in the regeneration of damaged fibers
a lipid sheath around a nerve fiber, formed from closely spaced spiral layers of the plasma membrane of a Schwann cell or oligodendrocyte
all cells of nervous tissue except neurons; cells that perform various supportive and protective roles for the neurons
a type of glial cell that wraps around nerve fibers in the CNS and produces a myelin sheath around them
small macrophages that develop from monocytes, they phagocytize dead nervous tissue, microorganisms, and foreign matter. They concentrate in areas damaged by infection, trauma or stroke.
deep masses of cerebral gray matter that play a role in the coordination of posture and movement
a bundle of axons that communicates between subregions of the same area of the brain; from "primary" areas to "association" areas
the nonvisual perception, usually subconscious, of the position and movements of the body, resulting from input from proprioceptors and the vestibular apparatus
a neuron that transmits action potentials from efferent neurons to afferent neurons
a rapid voltage change in which a plasma membrane briefly reverses electrical polarity; has a self-propagating effect that produces a traveling wave of excitation in nerve and muscle cells
medial geniculate nucleus
relays auditory information from the inferior colliculi to the auditory cortex
regulate reflexes of eyes and head to visual stimuli, and receives information from inferior colliculi about auditory stimuli
receives all info from the inner ear about sound, relays this info to the thalamus; also regulates reflexive movements of the head and trunk to auditory stimuli
path of cerebrospinal fluid from the lateral ventricle to the superior sagittal blood sinus
lateral ventricle - interventricular foramen of Monro - 3rd ventricle - cerebral aqueduct of sylvius - 4th ventricle - foramina of Luschka OR foramen of Magendie - subarachnoid space - arachnoid villus - superior sagittal blood sinus
made up of pia mater, nonciliated ependyma, capillaries. Secretes cerebrospinal fluid.
originates in the precentral gyrus, extends from the primary motor cortex down through the interal capsule, through the midbrain and the pons, into the medulla (where the decussate), and extending through the spinal cord as the corticospinal tracts
relays general sensory info from the lower half of the body to the nucleus gracilis
relays general sensory info from the upper half of the body to the nucleus cuneatus
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