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Arts and Humanities
Cognition Test 3
Terms in this set (45)
in a spoken language, the smallest distinctive sound unit
in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix)
a word learning bias that the child uses in word learning; it states that there are culturally agreed-upon names for things and these do not change
Principle of contrast
children's assumption that no two words have the same meaning. Hence they assume that a new word will not refer to something for which they already have a name.
words, including nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs, that are most essential to the meaning of a sentence
add detail and nuance to the meaning of the 'Content Morphemes' or help the content Morphemes fit the gramatical context. e.g. the suffix 'ist', the prefix 'de', the conjunction 'and' or the article 'the'
when the ear hears one sounds, but the eye sees a mouth form a different sound, the brain's interpretation can be a mixture of the two sounds
The ability to perceive sounds as belonging to different phoneme categories (e.g. that ability to differentiate between /p/ and /b/)
early vowel-like sounds that babies produce
intentional vocalization that lacks specific meaning
single-word phrases used early in language development to convey an entire thought
the kind of verbal utterances in which words are left out, but the meaning is usually clear
The use of a word to denote a larger class of items than is appropriate; for example, referring to the moon as a ball
the tendency to apply a word to narrowly; it occurs when children fail to use a word to name a relevant event or object. For example, a child might use the word boy to describe a 5-year-old neighbor but not apply the word to a male infant or a 9-year-old male.
Chomsky's concept of an innate, prewired mechanism in the brain that allows children to acquire language naturally
a set of rules that indicate how phonemes can be combined to produce speech sounds
the grammatical arrangement of words in sentences
the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; also, the study of meaning
the rules for the use of language in social context and in conversation or the study of these rules
Processes regarding learning how to read; Lexical processes re used to identify letters and words while comprehension processes are used to make sense of the text as a whole.
A theory claiming that language influences perception. Example: people who are into decorating can distinguish color by descriptive adjectives i.e. pearl white.
Rapid-eye movement observed when the individual is visually tracking a moving stimulus.
when the context of surrounding letters influences how one reads a word.
Slip of the tongue
an accidental and usually trivial mistake in speaking
a theory that proposes that both feature knowledge and word knowledge combine to provide information about the identity of letters in a word
Language that may develop when two groups of people with different languages meet. The pidgin has some characteristics of each language.
a mother tongue that originates from contact between two languages
an action carried out through language, such as promising, lying, and greeting
an item of information that is representative of a type
a speech act that commits the speaker to future action. An intention, promise, or oath. Ex: I will leave today; We should leave today
exclaiming, verbal accompaniment to action, expressing state or attitude (pragmatic intention)
a statement that is emphatic and explicit (spoken or written)
a word's actual pronunciation; generated by the application of the phonological rules of a language to the underlying form; sometimes also said of sentences
heuristic in which the difference between the starting situation and the goal is determined and then steps are taken to reduce that difference
the area of cognitive psychology that studies the processes involved in solving problems
thinking that moves away in diverging directions so as to involve a variety of aspects and which sometimes lead to novel ideas and solutions
a type of critical thinking in which one evaluates existing possible solutions to a problem to choose the best one
the set of possible pathways to a solution considered by the problem solver
very specific, step-by-step procedures for solving certain types of problems
same underlying structure but different surface features, learners often focus on surface rather than structural features
a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past
the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving
process by which a problem solver stops focusing conscious attention on solving the problem for a while and lets the work continue.
interference of previous learning inprocess of learning something new
mastery of one task aids learning or performing another
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