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Alberts Cell Bio Ch 14 Lecture 13
Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
Terms in this set (29)
a. Where are can a plastid be found, and what is it?
b. What are some examples?
a. In plants, and it is a dbl membraned organelle that has it's own DNA, and can be pigmented.
b. chlorophyll, leucoplast, amyloplast
The process that converts carbohydrates to energy is _a_, and occurs in __b_.
The result from glycolysis from one glucose molecule is ___.
2 pyruvate molecules
The conversion of AcetylCoA to CO2 and ___a__ is called ___b___, and occurs in the __c__.
a. high energy electrons
b. TCA cycle
c. mitochondrial matrix
The mitochondria can use which two compounds as fuel, which are transported across the inner mitochondrial membrane?
Pyruvate and fatty acids
The high energy electrons released in the matrix are carried by ____.
FADH2 and NADH
Where is the electron transport chain (and the respective enzymes) located?
Inner mitochondrial membrane
Chemiosmotic coupling specifically refers to ___.
a link between membrane transport (osmotic) processes and the formation of ATP through chemical reactions
The formation of a chemical H+ gradient in the mitochondria occurs during what cell process,_a_, and causes what? _b_
a. Stage 1 of Chemiosmotic coupling
b. formation of ATP
The second stage of chemiosmotic coupling is __.
The H+ ions flow back down the gradient through ATP synthase.
In which mitochondrial compartment is the H+ more concentrated during chemiosmotic coupling?
The intermembrane space
Other things that the H+ gradient is involved in is __a__transport and the bacterial ___b___.
The bacterial flagella is powered by ___.
an H+ gradient.
In the TCA cycle, NAD will take up _a__ and _b_ and deliver them at the membrane.
a. 2 electrons
b. 1 H+
(molecules)_a_ and _b__ are released by the ETS, and _c_ is consumed, while the electron travel activates _d__ pumps.
d. H+ out of matrix
For chloroplasts, the major electron carrier is __a__, and ___b__ (2) are consumed.
a. NADPH (think anabolic processes)
b. CO2 and H2O
Fusing and separating, and constant shape change occurs in what organelle?
Mitochondria are associated with ___ which facilitate movement.
How many regions are in the mitochondria?
4 (outer, and inner membrane, intermembrane space, and matrix)
_a__ are in the outer mitochondrial membrane, which allow what size _b_ of molecules in and out?
b. 5000 daltons or less (i.e. ATP/pyruvate)
The inner mitochondrial membrane contains __a__ proteins to help create impermeability, and also the respiratory chain (_b_).
The inner membrane contains enzymes for what three important functions?
a) oxidation reactions of ETC
b) ATP synthase
c) transport proteins (i.e. for pyruvate)
The intermembrane space contains enzymes for ___
phosphorylation of other nucleotides
High energy electrons generated by __a_ are carried by __b__
b. NADH and FADH2
The four major steps of energy production in the mitochondria are: (a-d)
a. Conversion of Pyruvate into acetyla CoA
b. Acetyl CoA (TCA)
d. H+ gradient--> ATP
Oxidative phosphorylation refers to _a_.
The balanced chemical reaction formula is _b_.
a. the oxygen that is needed to phosphorylate ADP--> ATP
b. NADH + 1/2 O2 + H+ ---> NAD+ + H2O
Conservation of energy occurs in the ETS due to __a___ by proteins in the chain.
The protein or molecule with the greatest e- affinity is __b_.
a. increasing electron affinity
Electron transfer (coupled to H+ mvmt) results in two gradients: _a_, which is higher in the matrix, and _b_, which is more negative on the inside of matrix.
b. voltage gradient/membrane potential
The measurement of the proton gradient is ___, measured in millivolts.
proton motive force
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