Terms in this set (170)
- Four quadrants
- Quadrants are viewed as examiner is
FACING the patient
- Begin with Maxillary right-quadrant 1
- Maxillary left-quadrant 2
- Mandibular left-quadrant 3
- Mandibular right-quadrant 4
- Number teeth from midline out

The rule of the 4's and 9's!
•4 = canine tooth
•9 = 1st molar tooth
YOUNG b/c of the very wide pulpis this dog young or old?What is it: Is a legal document. Should be written in ink. Is required for EVERY dental patient. • Become familiar with the Triadan numbering system and the anatomical notation What is it for: •Identifying missing or extra teeth •Confirming the proper size and location of teeth •Recording all pathology •Recording procedures and treatments performed- What is a dental chart? - What is dental chart for?Occlusion = way jaw fits together • Class 0 = Normal occlusion "scissor bite" • Class 1 = A normal rostrocaudal relationship of the maxillary and mandibular dental arches with malposition of one or more individual teeth • Class 2 = An abnormal rostrocaudal relationship between the dental arches in which the mandibular arch occludes caudal to its normal position relative to the maxillary arch (overbite) • Class 3 = An abnormal rostrocaudal relationship between the dental arches in which the mandibular arch occludes rostral to its normal position relative to the maxillary arch (underbite) • Class 4 = Maxillary-mandibular asymmetry. - Describes skeletal malocclusions that can occur in a rostro-caudal, side-to side, or dorso-ventral direction. - Unequal jaw lengths (left/right) - Asymmetry of the skull and is loss of the midline alignment of the maxilla and mandible. - An abnormal vertical space between opposing dental arches when the mouth is closed - Old term: "Wry" Bite, Class 4 Malocclusion- What is an occlusion? - What are the occlusion classes?Normal Occlusion (Class 0) "Scissor Bite"occlusion class?Normal Occlusion (Class 0)occlusion class?Normal Occlusion (Class 0) note: there is an empty space where the upper canine fits = diastema = normalocclusion class?Class 1 Malocclusion- Neutrocclusion (normal jaw lengths but malposition of one or more individual teeth) Rostral Cross-bite incisors are behind instead of in front ofocclusion class?Class 1 Malocclusion- Neutrocclusion (normal jaw lengths but malposition of one or more individual teeth) Linguoversion of Mandibular Canine lower canine is oriented lingually b/c of baby tooth that never fell outocclusion class?Class 1 Malocclusion- Neutrocclusion (normal jaw lengths but malposition of one or more individual teeth) Mesioversion of Maxillary Canineocclusion class?Mesioversion of Maxillary Canine (Class 1) put on braces!class? what can be done?Mesioversion of Maxillary Canine (Class 1) Orthodontic Treatment with Rubber Bands and Buttons done for animal to be able to close mouthclass?Examples of Malocclusions: Class 1 Retained deciduous canine teeth causing base linguoversion of the mandibular canines (narrow condition) in a puppy Two teeth should never occupy the same socket at the same time! --> extract baby tooth!class? what can be done?Class 2 Malocclusion, (Mandibular Distocclusion) Old terms: Overbite, Over-shot, Brachygnathic - short lower jaw - lower canines can cause trauma can do a crown reduction to shorten the teethclass? what can be done?class 2 malocclusion remove some bottom incisors to make room for top caninesclass? what can be done?Class 3 Malocclusion, (Mandibular Mesiocclusion) Old terms: Under-bite, Under-shot, Prognathic not much we can do about thisclass?Maxillary Mandibular Asymmetry class 4class?Maxillary Mandibular Asymmetry class 4class?Maxillary Mandibular Asymmetry class 4class?Maxillary Mandibular Asymmetry class 4class?dog = 42 cat = 30correct number of teeth dog vs cat?deciduousterm for baby teeth?permanentterm for adult teeth?supernumerary teeth/retained deciduous teeth can eventually result in class 1 malocclusionissue? can result in?abnormal tooth shapeissue?rotation of tooth & crowding ~ common in pugs & bulldogsissue?extrinsic staining ~ can go away with cleaningissue?intrinsic staining ~ can't go away with cleaning take dental x-ray: shows wide pulp cavity ... if this is an adult the tooth died early on and stopped getting narrowerissue?pulpitis left = healthy pulp middle = purple-grey discoloration right = dead pulpissue?becomes irreversible when no room for it to become inflamed --> death of tooth usually due to concussive damage (running into wall)pulpitisroot canalprocedure?• Dilacerations (Enamel folds/grooves), Dens Invaginatus - Developmental malformations • Worn Teeth (attrition or abrasion)will show exposed reparative dentin which is dark in color, but smooth and non-penetrable to an explorer tipwhat are issues that lead to shape and color changes of the teeth?dental explorer ~ shepherd's hook * typically used the finer the tip, the more tactiledental explorer ~ 11/12 ODU*dental explorer ~ pigtaildental explorer ~ orbandeciduous tooth with pulp exposure w/ tooth resorptionreparative dentin ~ smooth & glassy (NOT pulp exposure) P's tooth has worn over timeissue?Abrasion with reparative dentinissue?pulp exposure ~ is red - recent ~ is black - happened a bit ago tx: - root canal (on bigger teeth w/ no other issues (like bone loss or gum disease) only ~ premolars & molars) - extractionissue? tx?Abrasion with pulp exposureissue?Abrasion pathological wearing away of dental substance through an abnormal mechanical process Attrition (t-t: tooth-tooth) tooth-to-tooth wearing (malocclusion) ex: use of lots of old tennis ballsattrition vs abrasion?CARIES = Cavities VERY RARE! ~5% of dogs on occlusive surfaces usually in animals being fed human foodissue?caninedens invaginatus - usually congenital or caused by traumadens invaginatusTooth ResorptionPATHOLOGYmild gingivitis - rednessSevere Gingivitis in a Cat gingivitis > stomatitis b/c inflammation is strictly on gingiva IF inflammation extended to mucosa, this would be stomatitisFeline Stomatitis Caudal Mucositis1.Gingiva 2.Alveolar Bone 3.Connective tissue 4.Periodontal ligamentThe supporting structures that surround the toothnormal --> gingivitis --> periodontitis stage 4 is most severeWhat is progression of periodontal disease?• 0 = Normal gingiva • 1 = Mild inflammation, slight change in color, slight edema, no bleeding on probing • 2 = Moderate inflammation, redness, edema; bleeding on probing • 3 = Severe inflammation, spontaneous bleedinggingival indexAVDC: CHECK MOBILITY: 0 - 3 scale Stage 0 (M0) Physiologic mobility up to 0.2 mm. Stage 1 (M1) The mobility is increased in any direction other than axial over a distance of more than 0.2 mm and up to 0.5 mm. Stage 2 (M2) The mobility is increased in any direction other than axial over a distance of more than 0.5 mm and up to 1.0 mm. Stage 3 (M3) The mobility is increased in any direction over a distance exceeding 1.0 mm or any axial movement.mobility sclaeDog: 0-3 mm Cat: 0-1 mmprobing ~ what is normal sulcus depth in dog vs cat?leftwhich is correct use of probe?1) horizontal (most common) 2) verticalwhat are ways to describe bone loss?gingival recessionCEJ to gingival margin (ROOT EXPOSURE)how is gingival recession measured?FURCATION (space btwn roots) INVOLVEMENT HOLD PROBE PERPENDICULAR TO TOOTH• Class I: As probe enters the furcation area, bone still fills most of the area between the roots, the arch of the tooth structure can be felt. Probe will only penetrate about 1mm. • Class II: Probe will penetrate more than a mm but not completely through. • Class III: Through and through passage, no bone within the arch of the furcation. (majority of time, needs extraction)classes of furcation involvement?1. Periodontal Therapy ("aka do not say Dental" please use an appropriate term to describe !!!) 2. Antimicrobial Therapy - sometimes 3. Advanced Periodontal Therapy, Surgery, and Tissue Regeneration, 4. Appropriate Home Care Prevention is the best cure!!!!tx for periodontal dz?Periodontal Disease (Periodontitis) Gingival recession and alveolar bone lossAdvanced Periodontal DiseaseAdvanced PeriodontitisChronic Ulcerative Mucositis Contact Ulcers - "kissing lesions" ulcerations on mucosa next to large toothOral Melanoma in a cat- Squamous Cell Carcinoma - Melanoma - Fibrosarcoma - Osteosarcoma Odontogenic tumors: - Peripheral Odontogenic fibroma - Odontogenic cysts - Acanthomatous Ameloblastomawhat are common oral masses?- Draw location - Measure size dimensions x3 - Describe: color & texture & firmness categories: - benign (gingival hyperplasia) - locally invasive - malignanthow do you chart oral tumors?Odontogenic fibroma on the lingual surface of the first molar benignAcanthomatous Ameloblastoma in a dog not deadly but very invasivegingival enlargement ~ perfect environment for plaque typical in bulldogs1) Inflammatory 2) Drug induced ~ Cyclosporine, calcium channel blockers, anticonvulsants 3) Associated with systemic conditions ~ Pregnancy, puberty 4) Neoplastic 5) False enlargement ~ Exostoses, buccal bone expansionWhat are causes of gingival enlargement?1) Discontinuation of the offending drug if possible 2) Periodontal surgery • Gingivectomy/gingivoplasty • Biopsy 3) Oral hygiene • Oral home care --> 2x daily brushing • Plaque control • Chlorhexidine gelWhat is tx for gingival enlargement?Gingival Hyperplasia in the Dog pre --> post txlingual molar gland in cats = NOT a tumor• Small mixed salivary gland on the lingual aspect of the mandibular 1st molar in cats • Should not be removed but function does not appear to be decreased if it is removed NOT a tumorwhat is a lingual molar gland?INCISIVE PAPILLA incisive ducts extend to floor of nasal fossa, tissues puffy over palatine fissures NOT a tumorapicalcoronalbuccalpalatallingualcaudalrostrallinguallabialdorsalventralmesialfront of toothdistalback of toothdistalmesialdistallabiallinguallingualmesiallabialdistallingualmedian planedistalbuccalapex (closed)pulp (root canal)dentinfurcationperiodontal ligament spaceapex (open)gingival sulcusrootcrowncementumCTperiodontal ligamentcementoenamel junctiongingivacoronalapicalmucosamucogingiva junctionattached gingivamucosagingivafree gingiva (where sulcus is)gingival marginrootincisorsapexcrownpremolarsmolarsmolarspremolarscanine201,202,203204205-210premolarsmolarsmolarspremolarscanine301-303305-311309308307molarpremolar304premolars104106 missing109 molar108107104incisors