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If the GFR is too low, needed substances may pass so quickly through the renal tubules that they are not absorbed and instead are lost in the urine.


In the kidneys, the countercurrent mechanism involves the interaction between the flow of filtrate through the loop of Henle of the juxtamedullary nephrons (the countercurrent multiplier) and the flow of blood through the limbs of adjacent blood vessels (the countercurrent exchanger). This relationship establishes and maintains an osmotic gradient extending from the cortex through the depths of the medulla that allows the kidneys to vary urine concentration dramatically.


The Ureter transports urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.


Water reabsorption through the proximal convoluted tubule is termed obligatory water reabsorption, whereas water reabsorption through the distal convoluted tubule is termed facultative water reabsorption.


The position of the kidneys behind the peritoneal lining of the abdominal cavity is described by the term retroperitoneal.


The entire responsibility for urine formation lies with the nephron.


Urine is 95% water by volume.


The act of emptying the bladder is called voiding.


Glomerular filtration is an ATP driven process.


In the absence of hormones, the distal tubule and collecting ducts are relatively impermeable to water.


The collecting duct is impermeable to water in the presence of ADH


The urethra contains an internal sphincter of smooth muscle.


Angiotensin II is a substance made by the body to lower blood pressure during stress.


Aldosterone is a hormone that causes the renal tubules to reclaim sodium ions from the filtrate.


Blood pressure in the renal glomerulus is lower than in most parts of the body in order to conserve body water.


The proximal convoluted tubule is the portion of the nephron that attaches to the collecting duct.


Urea is reabsorbed in the loop of Henle.


Incontinence is the inability to control voluntary micturition.


The myogenic mechanism reflects the the tendency of vascular smooth muscle to stretch.


An excessive urine output is called anuria.


Tubular secretion is effective in controlling blood pH.


The trigone is so named because of the shape of the urinary bladder.


Atrial naturetic peptide inhibits sodium reabsorption.


The macula densa cells are chemoreceptors that respond to changes in the urea content of the filtrate.


Blood in the urine may be a symptom of bladder cancer.


Obligatory water reabsorption involves the movement of water along an osmotic gradient.


Having a kinked ureter is called renal ptosis.


The mechanism that establishes the medullary osmotic gradient depends most on the permeability properties of the

loop of Henle

Urine passes through the

pelvis of the kidney to ureter to bladder to urethra.

Which of the following is not associated with the renal corpuscle?

Vasa Recta

An increase in the permeability of the cells of the collecting tubule to water is due to a (n)

increase in the production of ADH.

The urinary bladder is composed of

transitional epithelium.

The kidneys are stimulated to produce renin

by a decrease in the blood pressure.

Which of the choices below is not a function of the urinary system?

eliminates solid, undigested wastes and excretes carbon dioxide, water, salts, and heat.

Which gland sits atop each kidney?


The arcuate artery

lies on the boundary between the cortex and medulla of the kidney.

The glomerulus differs from other capillaries in the body in that it

is drained by an efferent arteriole.

The descending limb of the loop of Henle

contains fluid that becomes more concentrated as it moves down into the medulla

Select the correct statement about the ureters

The ureters are capable of peristalsis like that of the gastrointestinal tract.

The fatty tissue surrounding the kidneys is important because it

stabilizes the position of the kidneys by holding them in their normal position.

The renal copuscle is made up of

Bowman's capsule and glomerulus

The functional and structural unit of the kidneys is the


The juxtaglomerular apparatus is responsible for

regulating the rate of filtrate formation and controlling systemic blood pressure.

The chief force pushing water and solutes out of the blood across the filtration membrane is

glomerular hydrostatic pressure (glomerular blood pressure)

Which of the following statements describes the histology of the ureters?

They are trilayers (mucosa, muscularis, and adventitia)

Which of the following statements is a false or incorrect statement?

The male urethra serves both the urinary and reproductive systems at the same time.

Which of the following acts as the trigger for the initiation of micturion (voiding)?

the stretching of the bladder wall.

The filtration membrane includes all except

renal fascia

The mechanism of water reabsorption by the renal tubules is


Most electrolyte reabsorption by the renal tubules is

hormonally controlled in the distal tubule segments.

The macula densa cells respond to

changes in solute content of the filtrate.

Which of the following is not reabsorped by the proxmal convoluted tubule?


The fluid in the glomerular (Bowman's) capsule is similar to plasma except that it does not contain a significant amount of

plasma protein

Alcohol acts a diuretic because it

inhibits the release of ADH

The function of angiotensin II is to

contrict arterioles and increase blood pressure.

A disease caused by inadequate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) by the pituitary gland with symptoms of polyuria is

diabetes insipidus

An important characteristic of urine is its specific gravity or density, which is

1.001 - 1.035

Place the following in correct sequence from the formation of a drop of urine to its elimination from the body.

Nephron, collecting duct, minor calyx, major calyx, ureter, to urethra

Select the correct statement about the nephrons

The parietal layer of the glomerular capsule is simple squamous epithelium.

What would happen if the capsular hydrostatic pressure were increased above normal?

Net filtration would decrease

Which of the following is not a part of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?

podocyte cells

Tubular reabsorption

by passive process requires ATP to move solutes from the interior of the tubule to the blood.

Which of the following is not a reason why substances are either not reabsorbed or are incompletely reabsorbed from the nephron?

They are extremely complex molecules.

Reabsorption of high levels of glucose and amino acids in the filtrate is accomplished by

secondary active transport

Which of the choices below is a function of the loop of Henle?

form a large volume of very dilute urine or small volume of very concentrated urine.

Fetal kidneys do not have to work very hard because

the placenta allows the mother's urinary system to clear the waste from fetal blood.

Which of the following best describes the kidney function in older adults (70 years or older)

Kidney function decreases due to kidney atrophy.

The factor favoring filtrate formation at the glomerulus is the

glomerular hydrostatic pressure

If the Tm for a particular amino acid is 120mg/100 ml and the concentration of that amino acid in the blood is 230 mg/100 ml, the amino acid will

appear in the urine.

If one says that the clearance value of glucose is zero, what does this mean?

Normally all glucose is reabsorped.

Excretion of dilute urine requires

impermeability of the collecting tubule to water.

Which of the choices below is not a method by which the cells of the renal tubules can raise blood pH?

by secreting sodium ions

In the ascending limb of the loop of Henle the

thick segment moves ions out into interstitial spaces for reabsorption.

Select the correct statement about urinary system development?

kidneys develop from urogenital ridges.

Which of the choices below does not describe the importance of tubular secretion?

ridding the body of bicarbonate ions.

Which statement is correct?

Reabsorption of water is hormonally controlled.

What is the function of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?

help regulate blood pressure and the rate of blood filtration by the kidneys.

Which of the choices below is the salt level-monitoring part of the nephron?

macula densa

Which of the hormones below is responsible for facultative water reabsorption?


Which of the choices below is not a glomerular filtration rate control method?

electrolyte levels

Which of the choices below are the most important hormone regulators of electrolyte reapsorption and secretion?

Angiotensin II and aldosterone

Which of the cells of the kidney are chemoreceptors that respond to changes in solute content of the filtrate?

macula densa cells

The capillary bed that surrounds the descending and ascending loop of Henle of juxtamdelluary nephrons is called the

Vasa Recta

Urine Crystals in the renal pelvis are called

renal calculi

The need to get up in the middle of the night to urinate is called


The area between the ureters and urethra is called the

TRIGONE in a bladder


mechanism is the general tendency of vascular smooth muscle to contract when stretched.

The presences of pus in the urine is a condition called


Sodium-linked water flow across a membrane is called

OBLIGATORY water reabsorption.

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