87 terms

gen psych ch. 8,9, and 10

the persistence of learning over time
The process of encoding refers to
getting informatino into the memory
the process of getting information out of memory is called..
automatic processing and effortful processing are two types of..
The conscious repetition of information to maintain it in memory is called..
Priming is to retrieval as rehearsal is to..
The tendency to immediately recall the first and last items in a list better than the middle items is known as..
The serial position effect
Semantic encoding refers to the processing of..
Chunking refers to the..
organization of information into meaningful units
Echoic memory refers to a momentary sensory memory of
auditory stimuli
Refers to a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli
Echoic Memory
"Magical number 7, plus or minus two" is..
short term memory
Long-term potentiation is..
a neural basis for learning and memory
Memory of facts is to_____ as memory of skills is to _______
Explicit Memory, Implicit memory
Retrieval cues
Words, events, places, and emotions that trigger our memory of the past
Mood-congruent memory
refers to the effect of emotional states on the process of retrieval
Some information in our fleeting sensory memory is encoded into..
Short term memory
Not remembering what a meaning of a term is, but where it appeared in a textbook
Automatic Processing
A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli is called..
Iconic Memory
A _______ memory would be typically stored in ________Memory
Flashbulb, Long-term
Cerebellum is to ____ memory as hippocampus is to ____ memory
Implicit, Explicit
When troy is in a bad mood he interprets his parents comments as criticisms, when he is in a good mood, he interprets the same types of parent comments as helpful suggestions. this has to do with a problem with...
Not being able to remember a friends name would be a failure in..
What refers to the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information?
Proactive Interference
What is the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of previously learned information?
Retroactive Interference
Research on memory construction indicates that.
False memories often feel as real as true memories
What is used when forming many associations between new course material and what you already know as an effective way to build a network?
Retrieval Cues
Cognitive psychology
the scientific study of mental processes, including perception, thought, memory, and reasoning
Category Hierarchies
Dividing broad concepts into increasingly smaller and detailed subgroupings
The use of Heuristics rather than algorithms is ..
Most likely to save time in arriving at solutions to problems
Confirmation Bias
a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence.
Funtional Fixedness
The tendency to think of objects only in terms of their normal uses
Belief Perserverance
tendency to maintain belief after contradictory evidence (replay) Ex. Witness your boyfriend cheating on you but still believe he will be faithful
refers to the rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences
Combining words into grammatically sensible sentences, we need to apply proper rules
Telegraphic Speech is
is most closely associated with two-word stage of language development
Who emphasized the importance of reinforcement in language?
B.F. Skinner
Noam Chomsky
an inborn readiness to learn grammatical rules
Who suggested that diverse human languages share a univeral grammer?
impaired use of language
Australian dolphins learned to use marine sponges to catch fish examplifies..
Transmit Cultural Innovations
Methodical step-by-step procedure to solving problems
Whorfs linguistic determinism
Bilingual people experience a different sense of self
Factor analysis
a statistical procedure that can be used to identify clusters of closely related test items
Divergent Thinking
Generating multiple possible answers to a problem
Sternberg's concept of practical intelligence. (EX)
Shelly, a newpaper reporter who has established a large network of information sources
Researchers indentified many different chromosomal regions important to intelligence...
Flynn effect
due in part to increasingly improved childhood health and nutrition
Binet and Terman would have been most likely to disagree about the
Extent to which intelligence is determined by heredity
most enthusiastic about the value of a single test score as an index of an individuals mental capacity
Intelligence tests are biased in the sense that
Test performance is influenced by cultural experiences
Psychologists would agree that intelligence is a
mental ability to learn from experience
Psychologists use_______ to assess individuals mental aptitudes
Intelligence tests
Spearman's g factor refers to a
general intelligence that underlies successful performance
Factor analysis is
a statistical procedure that indentifies clusters of closely related test items
L.L. Thurstone claimed that word fluency
Involves a different deminsion of intelligence from that of reasoning
The characteristics of savant syndrome suggests that intelligence is
a diverse set of distinct abilities
Robert Sternberg distinguished among analytical, practical, and _____ intelligence
Sternberg's three intelligences reveal ____ ethnic group differences in intelligence and a ____ accurate prediction of American students first year
Reduced, More
the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas
Intrisic Motivation is thought to be an important component of
Perceptual skills that can indicate someone is happy by facial expressions is..
Emotional intelligence
The concept of emotional intelligence is most likely to be criticized by
Extending the definition of intelligence to an overly broad range of skills
Binet an Simon designed a test
to identify children likely to have difficulty learning in regular school classes
To assess mental age Binet and Simon mesured
children's reasoning skills
a 5yr old with an intellegence test of a 4 yr old has a mental age of
IQ =
Mental age/Chronological age X 100
12 yr old with an intelligence response of a 9 yr old has an IQ of
5yr old with an IQ of 120 has a mental age of
Aptitude tests
test ability to learn new skills
Aptitude tests are to ____ as achievement tests are to ______
Future Performance, Current Competence
A standerdized test means that
a person's test performance can be compated to that of a pretested group
The distribution of intelligence test scores at a bell shaped curve is a
Normal Curve
About ____ percent of WAIS scores fall between 85 and 115
A normal curve would represent
Women in terms of there physical hieghth
Reserchers assess two scores of a single test to measure the
A test that measures or predicts what it is supposed to has a high
Psychologists would calculate the relationship between intelligence test scores and grades in order to assess the
Predictive Validity
The correlation between academic success and intelligence scoers will be lowest if computed from a group of individuals with scores between
85 and 115
The high positive correlations between scores received on comparable sections of SAT and GRE provide evidence for the ______ of the test scores
Sasha is mildly mentally retarted. she will receive intelligence score between
50 and 70
The similarity of intelligence of indentical twins raised apart is
Greater than that between ordinary siblings reared together
Which provides evidence that intelligence test scores are influenced by heredity?
Identical twins reared seperately are more similar in there test scores than fraternal twins reared together
The heritability of intelligence refers to
The percentage of variation in telligence within a group that is attributable to genetic factors
Babies in an Iranian orphanage suffered delayed intellectual development due to
a deprived environment
Research indicates that head start programs reduce
the likelihood that participants will repeat grades or require special education
A measure of intelligence based on head size is likely to have a __ level of ___ and a ___ level of ___
High, reliability ; Low, validity