mental health exam 1 Legal and Ethical Issues Treatment Modalities, Settings, and Therapeutic Programs

The nurse understands that crises are self-limiting. This implies that upon evaluation of crisis intervention, the nurse should assess for which outcome?

A) The patient will identify possible causes for the crisis.
B) The patient will discover a new sense of self-sufficiency in coping.
C) The patient will resume the precrisis level of functioning.
D) The patient will express anger regarding the crisis event.
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The nurse understands that crises are self-limiting. This implies that upon evaluation of crisis intervention, the nurse should assess for which outcome?

A) The patient will identify possible causes for the crisis.
B) The patient will discover a new sense of self-sufficiency in coping.
C) The patient will resume the precrisis level of functioning.
D) The patient will express anger regarding the crisis event.
Ans: C
Crises usually exist for 4 to 6 weeks. At the end of that time, the crisis is resolved in one of three ways. In the first two, the person either returns to his or her precrisis level of functioning or begins to function at a higher level; both are positive outcomes for the individual. The third resolution is that the person's functioning stabilizes at a level lower than precrisis functioning, which is a negative outcome for the individual. Assisting the
person to use existing supports or helping the individual find new sources of support can
decrease the feelings of being alone or overwhelmed. The patient may develop guilt if
he or she examines possible causes for the crisis. Expression of anger at 4 to 6 weeks indicates a less than favorable outcome of crisis intervention.
A patient who has been working on controlling impulsive behavior shows a strengthening ego through which of the following behaviors?

A) Going to therapy only when there is nothing more desirable to do
B) Weighing the advantages and disadvantages before making a decision
C) Telling others in the group the right way to act
D) Reporting having fun at a recent social event
Ans: B
The id is the part of one's nature that reflects basic or innate desires such as pleasure- seeking behavior, aggression, and sexual impulses. The id seeks instant gratification, causes impulsive unthinking behavior, and has no regard for rules or social convention. The superego is the part of a person's nature that reflects moral and ethical concepts, values, and parental and social expectations; therefore, it is in direct opposition to the id. The third component, the ego, is the balancing or mediating force between the id and the superego. The ego represents mature and adaptive behavior that allows a person to function successfully in the world.
A patient has just been told she has cervical cancer. When asked about how this is impacting her, she states, "It's just an infection; it will clear up." The statement indicates that this patient

A) needs education on cervical cancer.
B) is unable to express her true emotions.
C) should be immediately referred to a cancer support group.
D) is using denial to protect herself from an emotionally painful thought.
Ans: D
Ego defense mechanisms are methods of attempting to protect the self and cope with
basic drives or emotionally painful thoughts, feelings, or events. Most defense mechanisms operate at the unconscious level of awareness, so people are not aware of what they are doing and often need help to see the reality. Education and referrals are premature at this point in the patient's ability to cope.
A teenage patient defies the nurse's repeated requests to turn off the video game and go to sleep. The teen says angrily, "You sound just like my mother at home!" and continues to play the video game. The nurse understands that this statement likely indicates

A) the need of stricter discipline at home.
B) early signs of oppositional defiant disorder.
C) viewing the nurse as her mother.
D) expression of developing autonomy.
Ans: C
Transference occurs when the client displaces onto the therapist attitudes and feelings
that the client originally experienced in other relationships. Transference patterns are
automatic and unconscious in the therapeutic relationship. The occurrence of transference does not indicate ineffective parenting or disciplinary practices, nor is it indicative of a disorder. Autonomy is developed much earlier in the toddler years.
Ans: B
The orientation phase is directed by the nurse and involves engaging the client in treatment, providing explanations and information, and answering questions. The identification phase begins when the client works interdependently with the nurse, expresses feelings, and begins to feel stronger. In the exploitation phase, the client
makes full use of the services offered. In the resolution phase, the client no longer needs
professional services and gives up dependent behavior and the relationship ends.
A nurse is meeting with a crisis support group. In efforts to help patients identify with one another, the nurse explains which of the following about the crisis experience?

A) "Even happy events can cause a crisis if the stress is overwhelming."
B) "Only people who have unfortunate life events will experience a crisis."
C) "A person has no control over how a crisis will affect him or her."
D) "People can prevent all crises if they develop good coping skills early."
Ans: A
Not all events that result in crisis are "negative" in nature. Events like marriage,
retirement, and childbirth are often desirable for the individual but may still present
overwhelming challenges. All individuals can experience a crisis when they confront
some life circumstance or stressor that they cannot effectively manage through use of
their customary coping skills. A number of factors can influence how a person
experiences a crisis.
Ans: B, D
Humanism represents a significant shift away from the psychoanalytic view of the
individual as a neurotic, impulse-driven person with repressed psychic problems and
away from the focus on and examination of the client's past experiences. Humanistic
theories include Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Rogers' client-centered therapy.
Cognitive therapy is an existential therapy that focuses on immediate thought
processing--how a person perceives or interprets his or her experience and determines
how he or she feels and behaves. Gestalt therapy is an existential therapy that
emphasizes the person's feelings and thoughts in the here and now. Rational emotive
therapy is an existential theory that looks at irrational beliefs and automatic thoughts
that make people unhappy. Piaget's cognitive stages of development is a developmental
Ans: B, C, D
Adventitious crises include natural disasters like floods, earthquakes, or hurricanes; war,
terrorist attacks; riots; and violent crimes such as rape or murder. Maturational or
developmental crises are predictable events in the normal course of life, such as leaving
home for the first time, getting married, having a baby, and beginning a career.
Situational crises are unanticipated or sudden events that threaten the individual's
integrity, such as the death of a loved one, loss of a job, and physical or emotional
illness in the individual or family member.
A nursing supervisor reprimands an employee for being chronically late for work. If the employee handles the reprimand using the defense mechanism of displacement, he would most likely do which of the following?

A) Argue with the supervisor that he is usually on time
B) Make a special effort to be on time tomorrow
C) Tell fellow employees that the supervisor is picking on him
D) Tell the unit housekeeper that his work is sloppy
The nurse is assessing a client who is talking about her son's recent death but who shows no emotion of any kind. The nurse recognizes this behavior as which of the following defense mechanisms? A) Dissociation B) Displacement C) Intellectualization D) SuppressionAns: C Feedback: The client is aware of the facts of the situation but does not show the emotions associated with the situation. Dissociation involves dealing with emotional conflict by a temporary alteration in consciousness or identity. Displacement is the ventilation of intense feelings toward a person less threatening than the one who aroused those feelings. Suppression is replacing the desired gratification with one that is more readily available.A college student decides to go to a party the night before a major exam instead of studying. After receiving a low score on the exam, the student tells a fellow student, "I have to work too much and don't have time to study. It wouldn't matter anyway because the teacher is so unreasonable." The defense mechanisms the student is using are A) denial and displacement B) rationalization and projection C) reaction formation and resistance D) regression and compensationAns: B Feedback: When stating that it wouldn't matter if the student studied, the student is using rationalization, which is excusing own behavior to avoid guilt, responsibility, conflict, anxiety, or loss of self-respect. When stating that the teacher is unreasonable, the student is using projection or the unconscious blaming of unacceptable inclinations or thoughts as an external object. Denial is the failure to acknowledge an unbearable condition. Displacement is the ventilation of intense feelings toward persons less threatening than the one who aroused those feelings. Reaction formation is acting the opposite of what one thinks or feels. Resistance is overt or covert antagonism toward remembering or processing anxiety-producing information. Regression is moving back to a previous developmental stage to feel safe or have needs met. Compensation is overachievement in one area to offset real or perceived deficiencies in another area.A client is supposed to be ambulating ad lib. Instead, he refuses to get out of bed, asks for a bed bath, and makes many demands of the nurses. He also yells that they are lazy and incompetent. The client's behavior is an example of which of the following defense mechanisms? A) Introjection B) Projection C) Rationalization D) Reaction formationAns: B Feedback: Projection is blaming unacceptable thoughts on others; the client cannot accept the fact that he may be lazy or incompetent to care for himself. Introjection is accepting another person's attitudes, beliefs, and values as one's own. Rationalization is excusing one's own behavior to avoid guilt, responsibility, conflict, anxiety, or loss of self-concept. Reaction formation is acting the opposite of what one thinks or feels.A client begins to take stock of his life and look into the future. The nurse assesses that this client is in which of Erikson's developmental stages? A) Identity versus role confusion B) Industry versus inferiority C) Integrity versus despair D) Generativity versus stagnationAns: C Feedback: Erikson's stage of integrity versus despair is when an adult begins to reflect on his or her life. Identity versus role confusion occurs in adolescence when the person is forming a sense of self and belonging. Integrity versus despair occurs in maturity; accepting responsibility for oneself and life is the corresponding task. Generativity versus stagnation occurs in middle adulthood, which includes the tasks of being creative and productive and establishing the next generation.A basic assumption of Freud's psychoanalytic theory is that A) all human behavior can be caused and can be explained. B) human behavior is entirely unconscious. C) free association is the key to understanding. D) sexuality does not relate to behavior.Ans: A Feedback: Freud believed that everything we do has meaning, whether it is conscious or unconscious. Freud believed that human behavior can be motivated by subconscious thoughts and feelings but could also be in the preconscious or unconscious. Freud based his theory of childhood development on the belief that sexual energy, termed libido, was the driving force of human behavior.Which of the following is a major developmental task of middle adulthood? A) Developing intimacy B) Learning to manage conflict C) Reexamining life goals D) Resolving the pastAns: C Feedback: An important task for middle-aged adults is to examine life goals, ideally with some satisfaction. Developing intimacy occurs in young adulthood. Learning to manage conflict occurs in preschool. Resolving the past and accepting responsibility for oneself and life occur in maturity.Which cognitive mode, according to Harry Stack Sullivan, begins in early childhood as the child begins to connect experiences in sequence? A) Prototaxic mode B) Parataxic mode C) Bitaxic mode D) Syntaxic modeAns: B Feedback: The parataxic mode begins in early childhood as the child begins to connect experiences in sequence. The child may not make logical sense of the experiences, although he or she may not understand what he or she is doing. The prototaxic mode involves brief, unconnected experiences that have no relationship to one another. In the syntaxic mode, the person begins to perceive himself or herself and the world within the context of the environment and can analyze experiences in a variety of settings. There is not a bitaxic mode.Group members are actively discussing a common topic. Members are sharing that they identify with what others are saying. The nurse leader recognizes that the group is in which stage of group development? A) Planning B) Initial C) Working D) TerminationAns: C Feedback: The working stage of group development begins as members begin to focus their attention on the purpose or task the group is trying to accomplish. The beginning stage of group development, or the initial stage, commences as soon as the group begins to meet. Members introduce themselves, a leader can be selected, the group purpose is discussed, and rules and expectations for group participation are reviewed. The final stage, or termination, of the group occurs before the group disbands. The work of the group is reviewed, with the focus on group accomplishments or growth of group members.The family members of a patient with bipolar disorder express frustration with the unpredictable behaviors of their loved one. Which group should the nurse suggest as most helpful to this family? A) Family therapy group B) Family education group C) Psychotherapy group D) Self-help support groupAns: B Feedback: Family education discusses the clinical treatment of mental illnesses and teaches the knowledge and skills that family members need to cope more effectively. The goals of family therapy groups include understanding how family dynamics contribute to the client's psychopathology, mobilizing the family's inherent strengths and functional resources, restructuring maladaptive family behavioral styles, and strengthening family problem-solving behaviors. The goal of a psychotherapy group is for members to learn about their behavior and to make positive changes in their behavior by interacting and communicating with others. In a self-help group, members share a common experience, but the group is not a formal or structured therapy group.A student nurse attends a self-help group as part of a class assignment. While there the student recognizes a family friend. Upon returning home, the student talks about the experience with the family. The student's actions can be described as A) appropriate; persons familiar with group members are allowed self-help group membership. B) appropriate; self-help groups are not professional and therefore are open to public knowledge. C) inappropriate; most self-help groups have a rule of confidentiality. D) inappropriate; the student should not have been allowed to attend the group.Ans: C Feedback: Most self-help groups have a rule of confidentiality: whoever is seen and whatever is said at the meetings cannot be divulged to others or discussed outside the group. In many 12-step programs, such as Alcoholics Anonymous and Gamblers Anonymous, people use only their first names, so their identities are not divulged (although in some settings, group members do know one another's names).The nurse would recommend individual therapy for the patient who expresses a desire to A) bring about personal changes. B) gain a sense of belonging. C) develop leadership skills. D) learn more about treatment.Ans: A Feedback: People generally seek individual psychotherapy based on their desire to understand themselves and their behavior, to make personal changes, to improve interpersonal relationships, or to get relief from emotional pain or unhappiness. Groups are recommended for persons to accomplish tasks that require cooperation, collaboration, or working together.Which one of the following statements is most accurate regarding the cohesiveness of a group in group therapy? A) It is commonly present in the first meeting of the group. B) It is necessary for the group to have maximum cohesiveness, the more the better. C) Group cohesiveness is the degree to which members think alike and many things are left unspoken. D) Cohesiveness is a desirable group characteristic that is associated with positive group outcomes.Ans: D Feedback: Cohesiveness is a desirable group characteristic that is associated with positive group outcomes. It is not common for the group to be cohesive during the first meeting of the group. During the first meeting, or the initial stage, members introduce themselves and the parameters of the group are established. Group members begin to ìcheck outî one another and the leaders as they determine their levels of comfort in the group setting. Cohesiveness is associated with the working stage of a group that may take two or three sessions in a therapy group because members must develop some level of trust before sharing personal feelings or difficult situations. If a group is ìoverly cohesive,î in that uniformity and agreement become the group's implicit goals, there may be a negative effect on the group outcome as members may not offer needed feedback and this may thwart critical thinking and creative problem solving. Group cohesiveness is the degree to which members work together cooperatively to accomplish the purpose.Which one of the following is an important characteristic of an effective therapist and client relationship in individual psychotherapy? A) Homogeneity between the client and the therapist. B) Mutual benefit for the client and the therapist. C) The client must adapt to the therapist's style of therapy and theoretical beliefs. D) Match between the theoretical beliefs and style of therapy and the client's needs and expectations of therapy.Ans: B Feedback: Compatibility between the therapist and the client is required for therapy to be effective. The client must select a therapist whose theoretical beliefs and style of therapy are congruent with the client's needs and expectations of therapy. It is not required that the client and therapist be the same. The client's benefit is the most important consideration. The client also may have to try different therapists to find a good match.Which of the following is most essential when planning care for a client who is experiencing a crisis? A) Explore previous coping strategies B) Explore underlying personality dynamics C) Focus on emotional deficits D) Offer a referral to a self-help groupAns: A Feedback: Crisis intervention focuses on using the person's strengths, such as previous coping skills, and providing support to deal with the current situation. Exploring underlying personality dynamics and focusing on emotional deficits would not help the client in the crisis situation. When the client is in a crisis situation, offering a self-help group would not be appropriate.During the initial interview with a client in crisis, the initial priority is to A) assess the adequacy of the support system. B) assess for substance use. C) determine the precrisis level of functioning. D) evaluate the potential for self-harm.Ans: D Feedback: Safety is always the priority; clients in crisis may be suicidal. Assessing the adequacy of the support system, assessing for substance use, and determining the precrisis level of functioning would be important assessments but not as high priority as evaluating the potential for self-harm.Patients on an inpatient psychiatric unit can earn off-unit privileges for daily use of socially appropriate behavior. This is an example of employing which concept of behavior modification? A) Systematic desensitization B) Negative reinforcement C) Classical conditioning D) Operant conditioningAns: D Feedback: The theory of operant conditioning says people learn their behavior from their history or past experiences, particularly those experiences that were repeatedly reinforced. Behavior that is rewarded with reinforcers tends to recur. Positive reinforcers that follow a behavior increase the likelihood that the behavior will recur. In classical conditioning, behavior can be changed through conditioning with external or environmental conditions or stimuli. Negative reinforcement involves removing a stimulus immediately after a behavior occurs so that the behavior is more likely to occur again. In systematic desensitization, the client learns and practices relaxation techniques to decrease and manage anxiety. He or she is then exposed to the least anxiety provoking situation and uses the relaxation techniques to manage the resulting anxiety.A patient states, "I hate spending time with my family. They're always on my back about something! I won't do anything they ask me to do." Which response by the nurse reflects a behavioral perspective? A) "Let's play like I'm your parent, and we'll practice some better ways to communicate that won't result in an argument." B) "Some medicines really help with anger. Are you interested in talking to your physician about starting you on something?" C) "That's probably your way of getting back at them for being strict with you when you were younger." D) "If you agree to start doing what your parents request, then they have agreed to respect your privacy more."Ans: D Feedback: Behaviorism is a school of psychology that focuses on observable behaviors and what one can do externally to bring about behavior changes. It does not attempt to explain how the mind works. Behavior can be changed through a system of rewards and punishments. Practicing communication is a psychotherapy technique to improve interpersonal relationships. Use of medications is not grounded in behavioral perspective. Analyzing the reasons for the behavior is not grounded in behavioral perspective.A nurse is working with a patient with an eating disorder who refuses to eat a muffin. The nurse asks the patient "Is there any way that you could see the muffin as just flour and water, basic nutrients your body needs?" In this statement, the nurse is using which type of therapy? A) Rational emotive therapy B) Cognitive therapy C) Gestalt therapy D) Reality therapyAns: B Feedback: Cognitive therapy focuses on immediate thought processing, or how a person perceives or interprets his or her experience and determines how he or she behaves. Rational emotive therapy considers not only thoughts but feelings associated with thoughts. Gestalt therapy focuses on the person's thoughts and feelings in the here and now. Reality therapy challenges people to examine how behavior interferes with life goals.A patient is blaming his impending divorce on the fact that his wife goes out frequently with her girlfriends. If using reality therapy, the nurse would help the patient with which of the following responses? A) "If you really love her, she should love you as well." B) "What does being divorced mean for you?" C) "How do you feel about your marriage ending?" D) "What role do you think you have played in the end of your marriage?"Ans: D Feedback: Reality therapy challenges clients to examine the ways in which their own behavior thwarts their attempts to achieve life goals. Others are often assigned the blame when people hold onto irrational thinking. The search for meaning is associated with logotherapy. Exploring feelings are associated with gestalt therapy.A nurse is assisting a patient who is working on the technique of systematic desensitization. When the patient feels anxious, the nurse can best use the principles of this technique by stating, A) "Use the deep breathing techniques we practiced yesterday." B) "What is the worst that will happen if you confront this fear?" C) "Tell me how you are feeling right now." D) "I can see you are anxious. Let's stop for a minute."Ans: A Feedback: Systematic desensitization can be used to help clients overcome irrational fears and anxiety associated with phobias. The client learns and practices relaxation techniques to decrease and manage anxiety. He or she is then exposed to the least anxiety provoking situation and uses the relaxation techniques to manage the resulting anxiety. Confronting irrational thoughts is part of rational emotive therapy. Encouraging expression of feelings is associated with gestalt therapy.The nurse is working with a client who has a history of inflicting spousal abuse. Although the nurse does not condone domestic violence, the nurse treats the client with unconditional positive regard through which of the following? A) The nurse tries to understand the feelings that might have led to violent behavior. B) The nurse uses honest emotional expression in relating to client. C) The client is still viewed as someone worthy of respect and assistance. D) The nurse relates to the client as if he were her own spouse.Ans: C Feedback: Unconditional positive regard involves nonjudgmental caring for the client that is not dependent on the client's behavior. Genuineness is a realness or congruence between what the therapist feels and what he or she says to the client. Empathetic understanding is when the therapist senses the feelings and personal meaning from the client and communicates this understanding to the client.A patient is being admitted to an inpatient unit for treatment of anorexia nervosa. Of the following assessment data, which should the nurse place as highest priority in the plan of care? A) Weight 24% below normal for height B) Distorted body image C) Feelings of inadequacy D) Frequent vomiting after mealsAns: D Feedback: Maslow's hierarchy of needs hypothesizes that the basic needs at the bottom of the pyramid dominate the person's behavior until those needs were met, at which time the next level of needs would become dominant. Vomiting threatens fluid and electrolyte balance and poses a more acute threat to survival than low weight. Once basic physical needs are met, the higher level needs such as body image and self-esteem can be addressed.The primary purpose for generalist nurses to develop skills with psychosocial interventions is A) psychosocial interventions are included on the nursing licensure examinations. B) psychosocial interventions are needed in all nursing practice settings. C) nurses will be consulted to assist in the care of psychiatric patients in acute care settings. D) there are a growing number of nursing practice opportunities in mental health settings.Ans: B Feedback: Nurses often use psychosocial interventions to help meet clients' needs and achieve outcomes in all practice settings, not just mental health. Psychosocial interventions are included on the licensing exam, but that is not the primary reason for developing proficiency. Any health-care personnel will care for psychiatric patients in acute care settings. Current trends reflect a decline in mental health services and employment opportunities.Which of the following considerations should have the most influence in the nurse's choice of the treatment for the client? A) The client's feelings and perceptions about his or her situation B) The nurse's beliefs about the theories of psychosocial development C) The nurse's familiarity with the type of treatment D) Any approach to treatment should work with any client.Ans: A Feedback: The client's feelings and perceptions about his or her situation are the most influential factors in determining his or her response to therapeutic interventions, rather than what the nurse believes the client should do. The nurse must examine his or her beliefs about the theories of psychosocial development and realize that many treatment approaches are available. Different treatments may work for different clients: no one approach works for everyone. Becoming familiar with the variety of psychosocial approaches for working with clients will increase the nurse's effectiveness in promoting the client's health and well-being.Which approach to therapy is most effective when planning for a client with negative thinking? A) Behavior modification B) Client-centered therapy C) Cognitive therapy D) Reality therapyAns: C Feedback: Cognitive therapy focuses on changing the client's thinking first, in the belief that then feelings and behavior can change as well. Behavior modification is a method of attempting to strengthen a desired behavior or response by reinforcement, either positive or negative. Client-centered therapy focuses on the role of the client, rather than the therapist, as the key to the healing process. Reality therapy focuses on the person's behavior and how that behavior keeps him or her from achieving life goals.