Upgrade to remove ads
Terms in this set (64)
any disturbance that transfers energy through matter or space
a transfer of energy through ocean water
What makes waves?
How is a wave formed?
wind blows and tries to drag it, surface water can't move as fast as the wind, it rises; after it starts to rise, gravity tried to pull it down; the falling water's momentum is carried below the surface and pushed up
What does wave size depend on?
The strength or speed, the length of time, and the distance the wind blows.
the highest point of the wave
the lowest point of the wave
the distance between two crests or two troughs
half the distance between the crest and trough
from the top of the crest to the bottom of the trough
the number of waves produced in a given time
how much time it takes for a wave to pass a fixed point
how fast a wave travels
How are ocean waves classified?
What is transferred from the atmosphere to the ocean surface?
What is moving in a wave?
only the energy, not the water
How does water move?
in a circular motion
Where do large particles move in the water?
in larger circles closer to the surface
Where do small particles move in the water?
in smaller circles deeper, closer to the ocean floor
At what distance from the wavelength are water particles not affected by the wavelength
1/2 the wavelength
What happens when waves reach shallow water?
They interact with the ocean floor, energy is transferred to ocean floor and water starts dragging against the ocean floor. The top of the wave travels faster so the wave gets taller and gravity pulls the crest down and it breaks.
Out at sea....
the wave height is shorter and the wave length is longer
Near the shore....
the wave height increases and the wave length decreases
What happens when waves reach the shore?
they transfer to the beach environment
Water washes up the beach....
at an angle carrying sand grains with it.
forward movement of a breaking wave
the return of water to the sea when the waves break on a beach
What does the water and sand do during a backwash?
it runs straight back down the beach
In a backwash, what happened to some of the sand?
Sand is wash onto shallow, underwater slopes called sandbars.
What is a sandbar?
shallow underwater slope
fast moving water rushing back out to sea through narrow openings
the daily rise and fall of earth's waters on its coastlines
Where do tides occur?
all bodies of water
What causes the tides?
caused by interaction of earth, moon, and the sun by the effects of gravity
When do high tides occur?
about 12 hours and 25 minutes apart
What is a source of potential energy?
the movement of water between high and low tides
What is a tsunamis?
a series of waves that form when a large volume of ocean water is suddenly moved up or down
What causes a tsunamis?
earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions, meteoric impact
a large stream of water that flows in a path through the ocean
How do currents differ from waves?
they actually move water from place to place
What are two types of currents?
surface and deep
What is a surface current?
ocean currents that occur near or at the surface of the ocean to a depth of 100 meters
What is the length of a surface current?
several thousand kilometers and across oceans
What is an example of a surface current?
the Gulf Stream
The Gulf Stream is .....
one of the strongest surface currents on Earth, moves more water in one year than all rives combined, water moves from the wind that is blown from the west
What is a continental deflection?
currents are deflected when they meet a continent
What does a continent do to a current?
doesn't allow the water to continue flowing so it changes direction
What is the Coriolis Effect?
the change of direction of anything moving in a straight path due to Earth's rotation
Where is the earth's rotation the fastest?
faster at the equator and slower closer to the poles
What cause the paths of the currents and winds to curve?
How do the currents deflect in the northern hemisphere?
to the right
How do the currents deflect in the southern hemisphere?
to the left
What are global winds?
wind that blows across the surface of the earth and pushes some of the ocean's water which creates surface currents
What causes currents to flow?
direction of the wind
What are deep currents?
slow moving currents close to the ocean floor
Do deep currents move faster or slower than surface currents?
What causes deep currents?
differences in density not by surface winds
Density is affected by....
salinity and temperature
What are some facts about density?
water with high salinity will be more dense
colder water is more dense than warm
(cold contracts/warm expands)
water that is more dense will sink and water that is less dense will rise
How do deep currents form?
movement of water due to density
What is convection current?
Circulation patterns in the ocean caused by movement of water with differential heating
Combination of surface currents and deep currents
Movement can be vertical, circular, or cyclical (ocean conveyor belt)
What is upwelling?
The upward movement of cold water from the depths of the ocean
Why is upwelling important?
to ocean life, brings much nutrients to the surface, areas are often habitats for enormous schools of fish
What do off-shore winds do?
push warmer surface water away from the shore and deeper colder water rises up what was pushed away
Recommended textbook explanations
Physical Science Concepts In Action
Frank, Wysession, Yancopoulos
Glencoe Physical Science
McLaughlin, Thompson, Zike
California Physical Science
Borgford, Cuevas, Dumas
This set is often in folders with...
Unit 8 - Oceanography
You might also like...
Waves, Currents, and Tides
Chapter 14 Earth Science
Ocean Movements 15.3
Movement Of Ocean Water
Other sets by this creator
JS Reading skill 2
JS Reading skills 1
JS Human relations 3
JS Human relations 2
Other Quizlet sets
Chapter 11: Coastal Hazards
L2 - Ocean wAVES
Coastal Landforms and Processes
Science Waves - 8th