mental health nursing exam 1

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Terms in this set (58)
torta civil wrong doingintentional tortsare willful actions that damage a client's property or violate clients rightsFalse Imprisonmentconfining a client to a specific area (seclusion room) physically, verbally, or using a chemical restraint when its not part of client's treatmentassaultmaking a threat to a client's personbatterytouching a client in a harmful or offensive wayunintentional tortsare actions or inactions that cause unintentional harmNegligencefailing to provide adequate care in a personal or professional situationmalpracticea type of professional negligenceneuronscells that send and receive signalsNeurotransmissiona function of electrochemical messages that are sent and received from various anatomical components of the neuronNeurotransmitterchemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neuronsdeactive/inactiveprocess of inactivating neurotransmitters through enzymes such as Monoamine oxidatemonoamine oxidatean enzyme responsible for deactivating monoamine neurotransmittersdopamine- is an excitatory neurotransmitter that is responsible for transmitting information about emotional responses, complex movements, and cognition. - Is responsible for an individual experiencing pleasure and reward from behaviors and its neurotransmission can be affected by stressSerotoninis an inhibitory neurotransmitter that is responsible for emotional regulations, sexual behaviors, temperature regulation, sleep, and pain managementNorepinephrineis an excitatory neurotransmitter that is responsible for learning, sleep, mood, memory, and attention.HistamineThe known postsynaptic receptors for histamine in the brain mediate the effects of alertness and wakefulness.Gama Amnio Butyric Acid (GABA)is an amino acid that serves as an inhibitory neurotransmitter. Similar to histamine, GABA modulates other neurotransmitters.glutamateis an amino acid that serves as an excitatory neurotransmitter.acetylcholineis a neurotransmitter that has inhibitory and excitatory properties ; regulates sleep-wake cycle - alzheimer's have decreased amountsfamily studyanalysis of how characteristics run in intact familiesadoptive studyseeks to understand the cause of behaviors when comparing those who share and do not share a genetic history but are raised in identical environmental conditions.twin studyseeks to understand the cause of behavior when comparing genetically identical peopleneurobiological causes of mental illness:- neurobiology - genetics - psychiatric pharmacogenomic testing - stress - infection -neuroplasticityAnxiolytic (Antianxiety)reduce anxiety - benzodiazepines - buspironebenzodiazepines- regulate the function of the neurotransmitter GABA - causing a large amount of dopamine to be released in the limbic systemBenzodiazepines manifestations- sedation, poor concentration, impaired memory, & drowsinessmonoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)A type of antidepressant where the mechanism of action inhibits the function of the enzyme monoamine oxidase side effects: weight gain, daytime sedation, sexual dysfunction, insomniawhile taking MAOIs food with ___ should be avoidedTyramine; due to increased risk for hypertensive crisis - aged or strong cheese - cured or processed meats (w/ nitrite) - sauces - dried/overripened fruitsFrist Generation Antipsychotics (FGA)work by blocking the dopamine receptors (antagonists) - conventional/typicalsecond generation antipsychotics (SGA)work by blocking dopamine receptors to a lesser degree and by inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin.Antipsychotics (neuroleptics) are used totreat a variety of manifestations that present in schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic-related disordersmood stabilizers are used tohelp relieve manifestations of mood dysregulation found in disorders like bipolar disorder - lithium - anticovulsants - SGA aripiprazole-depot injectionlithium therapyhelp prevent a relapse into a manic or major depressive episode - monitor levels done every 1-2 weeks - uncommon w/ serum concentration <0.5 - toxicity shows in levels >1.5sedative-Hypnoticsto treat insomnia - benzodiazepines - nonbenzodiazepines - melatonin receptor agoniststimulants•Central nervous system (CNS) stimulants are primarily used to treat manifestations of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy - by causing the presynaptic neuron to release dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrinecommon herbal remedies that interact w/ rx meds- St. John's wort - Ginseng - Chamomile - EchinaceaSerotonin Syndrome manifestations- restlessness - sweating - dilated pupils - tachycardia and htn - muscle rigidity & loss of muscle coordination ( sedation w/ benzodiazepines; admin. of serotonin antagonist, cyproheptadine)activation syndromemay develop within first few weeks of starting anti depressant - irritability, anxiety, impulsivity, aggressiveness, agitation - possible increased thoughts of suicideAntidepressant discontinuation syndrome (ADDS)may occur with sudden discontinuation of the antidepressant medication which the client has been taking for more than a month - difficulty sleeping, anxiety, depression, flu-like s/slithium toxicity common causesdehydration, overdose, & concurrent use with loop diureticslithium toxicity serum levelsearly: greater than 1.5 - poor coordination, confusion, and sedation, GI discomfort, nausea, coarse tremors, vomiting, and diarrhea advance: between 2.0-2.5 - seizures, stupor, extremely diluted urine, blurred vision, respiratory complications, tinnitus, and jerking motor movements severe: greater than 2.5 - Rapidly deteriorate with the advent of a comatose state; Risk of severe respiratory complications, leading to deathagranulocytosisA life-threatening drop in white blood cells - Flu-like symptoms including sore throat, fatigue, fever, and muscle achesNeuroleptic Malignant SyndromeA potentially life-threatening reaction to antipsychotic drugs - muscle rigidity, hyperthermia, vital sign instability (bp, hr), and elevated creatine kinase.extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS)caused blocking dopamine in the midbrain to the brainstem - acute dystonia - akathisia - pseudoparkinsonism - tardive dyskinesiadetoxification protocolwithdrawal from alcohol & opiates - risk for life-threatening complicationslong term alcohol use-adaptation response: results from prolonged alcohol consumption results in decreased GABA and increased glutamate functioning - tolerance: or needing an increased amount of a substance to reach a desired effect - withdrawal: Excessive amounts of glutamate released at the presynaptic cleft cause CNS excitation (increased HR & BP, nausea, vomiting, increased seizure risk and hallucinations)opiate withdrawalOpiate use differs from alcohol use because the brain has naturally occurring opiate receptors - everything is increased