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Era of Reform
Terms in this set (59)
practice of rewarding supporters with government jobs
Civil Service Commission
created by the Pendleton Act to oversee examinations for potential government employees
Rutherford B. Hayes
Refused to use the spoils system
Planned to reform the spoils system but was assassinated by an angry office seeker.
Chester A. Arthur
Passed the Civil Service Commission
Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)
Set up to regulate the railroad industry (end pools and rebates).
Setup the Interstate Commerce Commission
Sherman Anti-trust Act
Law that forbade the formation of trust and monopolies that limit trade and competition.
Signed the Sherman Anti-trust Act into law.
-Used the Sherman Anti-trust Act to break up powerful trusts like Rockefeller's Standard Oil Trust, JP Morgans' Northern Securities Trust...
-Passed the Pure Food and Drug Act/Meat Inspection Act
For the good of all people
The ability of a voter to introduce a bill to the state legislature.
The ability to vote on an issue/bill.
A special election to remove an elected official from office.
Instituted a graduated income tax.
Direct election of senators
Program of Progressive reforms instituted by Robert LaFollette that became the model for other states.
Progressive governor from Wisconsin (Wisconsin Idea)
Muckraker that exposed the meat industry in The Jungle
Muckraker that exposed the living conditions of the poor in the NYC slums in How the Other half Lives.
Corrupt political of the NY who was exposed by Thomas Nast
Political cartoonist who exposed Boss Tweed
Pure Food and Drug Act
Required manufacturers to list ingredients on packages.
Meat Inspection Act
Required meat packers to open door to inspectors.
Bull Moose Party
The Republicans were badly split in the 1912 election, so Roosevelt broke away forming his own Progressive Party (or Bull Moose Party because he was "fit as a bull moose..."). His loss led to the election of Democratic nominee Woodrow Wilson, but he gained more third party votes than ever before.
Federal Trade Commission
A government agency established in 1914 by W. Wilson to prevent unfair business practices and help maintain a competitive economy.
T. Roosevelt saved millions of acres of land for commercial development and industrial destruction. First was Yellowstone.
An organized campaign to eliminate alcohol consumption
(Women's Christian Temperance Union) group organized in 1874 that worked to ban the sale of liquor in the U.S.
..., the period from 1920 to 1933 when the sale of alcoholic beverages was prohibited in the United States by the 18th amendment
Spanish speaking neighborhoods
Seneca Falls Convention
1848 meeting in New York. Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott led the convention bringing order tothe Suffrage Movement. The Declaration of Sentiments was written.
President Theodore Roosevelt's plan for reform; all Americans are entitled to an equal opportinity to succeed
Federal Reserve Act
a 1913 law under W. Wilsonthat set up a system of federal banks and gave government the power to control the money supply.
Clayton Anti-Trust Act
1914 legislation under W. Wilsonthat defined those actions in which businesses could not engage; also declared that unions could not be legally attacked as trusts.
Election of 1912
Presidential campaign involving Taft, T. Roosevelt, and Woodrow Wilson. Taft and Roosevelt split the Republican vote, enabling Wilson to win
Ban on sale, manufacture, and transport of alcoholic beverages. Repealed by 21st amendment
National Womens Suffrage Association
group set up in 1869 to work for a constitution amendment to give women the right to vote.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Organized by W.E.B. Dubois, jane Addams and Lincoln Steffens.
1907 agreement between the United States and Japan that restricted Japanese immigration
Preservation and protection of natural resources. T. Roosevelt was noted for his efforts at conservation.
Democrat Woodrow Wilson's political slogan in the presidential campaign of 1912; Wilson wanted to improve the banking system, lower tariffs, and, by breaking up monopolies, give small businesses freedom to compete.
Roosevelt's legal attack on the Northern Securities Company, which was a railroad holding company owned by James Hill and J.P. Morgan. In the end, the company was "trust-busted" and paved the way for future trust-busts of bad trusts.
movement dedicated to achieving women's right to vote
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920) extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections.
People who worked for women's right to vote
Black educational institution founded by Booker T. Washington to provide training in agriculture and trades.
A group of Mexican Americans who pooled their money for legal aid and to defend themselves against violence.
A leader in the women's suffragist movement. Founded the National Woman's Party, Protested in front of white house and got arrested and when she was in jail she went on a hunger strike when Woodrow Wilson refused to support the women's suffrage movement. Went abroad and learned some of her striking methods.
Susan B. Anthony
(1820-1906) An early leader of the women's suffrage (right to vote) movement, co-founded the National Women's Suffrage Association with Elizabeth Cady Stanton in 1869.
..., 1st black to earn Ph.D. from Harvard, encouraged blacks to resist systems of segregation and discrimination, helped create NAACP in 1910
William Howard Taft
(1857-1930) Twenty-seventh president of the United States; he angered progressives by moving cautiously toward reforms and by supporting a higher tariff. He lost Roosevelt's support and was defeated for a second term.
Carrie Chapman Catt
president of NAWSA, who led the campaign for woman suffrage during Wilson's administration
Temperance leader who had a radical approach of using a hatchet to break up saloons and barrels of alcohol.
Booker T. Washington
A Former slave, he suggested that African Americans accept segregation-for now, instead focus on vocational and farming skills to help improve their situation. Hleped to create Tuskegee Institute.
Democratic candidate who won the Election of 1912. Progressive president (New Freedom, Clayton Anti-Trust Act, Federal Reserve Act...). Progressive pursuits will halt as a result of World War I breaking out in Europe.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Organizer of the Seneca Falls Convention, suffragist...
Headed the Woman's Christian Temperance Union. He educated the public about the dangers of alcohol abuse.
Co-founder of the NAACP, established the Hull House to help the poor and a suffragist.