4 (biology) ch.21&22

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chitin
Complex carbohydrate that is main component of fungi cell walls.
Fungi
eukaryotic heterotrphs that have cell walls
hyphae
tiny filament that makes up a multicellular fungus or a water mold
bodies of multicellular fungi
are composed of many hyphae tangled together into thick mass called mycelium
mycelium
suited to absorb food because it permits a large surface area
Most Fungi
reproduce asexually and sexually
sporangia
Spore producing structure
sporangiophores
Specialized hyphae that look like upright stalks
zygomycetes
life cycles that include zygospore
zygospore
resting spore that contains zygotes formed during the sexual phase of the mold's life cycle
rhizopus stolonifer
familiar zygomycete
rhizoids
root like hypae that penetrates the bread's surface
stolons
Stemlike hyphae that runs along the surface of the food source
gametangia
Gamete producing structure in fungi
phylum ascomycota
named for the ascus reproductive structure that contains spores
conidia
asexual spores produced at tips of hyphae
ascus
forms within the fruiting body and 2 nuclei of different mating types fuse to form a diploid zygote
ascospores
eight cells produced when meiosis is followed by a cycle of mitosis
budding
Asexual reproductive process in yeasts
saccharomyces
sugar fungi
phylum basisdiomycota
(club fungi) specialized reproductive structure that resembles a club
basidium
Spore-bearing structure in club fungi
basidiospores
Haploid spores formed in basidium
deuteromycota
an extremely varied phylum
penicillium notatum
grows on fruit, reproduces asexually, evoled from ascomycete
saprobes
Organism that obtain food from decaying organic matter, all fungi are this
pleurotus ostreatus
carnivorous fungi lives inside trees
parasitic fungi
cause serious plant and animal diesases
fungal disease in plants
wheat rust
fungal disease in human
athletes foot
candida albicans
yeast, may produce thrush
some fungi
form symbiotic relationships.
lichens
Symbiotic organism between a fungus and a photosynthetic organism
mycorrhizae
Mutualistic associations of plant roots and fungi.
plants are made of
eukaryoted that have cell made of cellulose. carry out photosynthesis.
sporophyte
the spore-producing individual or phase in the life cycle of a plant having alternation of generations
gametophyte
the gamete-producing individual or phase in the life cycle of a plant having alternation of generations
plants NEED
sunlight,water, minerals, gas exchange, transport water.
first plants
evolved from an organism much like the multicellular green algae living today
plants are classified by
DNA sequences
bryophytes
nonvascular plants that absorb water through diffusion
bryophtes life cycle
depends on water, also lacks vassuclar tissuse
3 types of bryophtes
mosses, liveworts, hornworts
rhizoids
the thin, rootlike structure that anchors a moss and absorbs water and nutrients for the plant
gemmae
small multi-cellular reproductive structure of liverworts
hornworts
flattened with long horn like sporophytes
gametophyte
dominant, reconizable stage of the life cycle, carries photosynthesis, (bryophytes)
protonema
mass of tangled green filaments in mosses that forms during germination
antheridia
plant structure that produces sperm
archegonia
female gametangia (pruduecs egg)
sphagnum
mosses are goup of mosses thrive on water bogs
vascular tissue
tissue that conducts water and nutrients through the plant body in higher plants
tracheids
A long, skinny type of xylem found in all vascular plants.(first vasucale plants)
xylem
Vascular subsystem that carries water upward.
phloem
the tissue that moves food/sugar
lignin
substance in vascular plants that makes cell walls rigid
seedless vascular plants
club mosses, hprsetails, ferns
roots
Absorbs water and minerals from the ground. Anchors plant in ground.
leaves
The main photosynthetic organs of vascular plants.
veins
A vascular bundle in a leaf.
stems
Supprots leaves and connects to roots with vascular tissure
lycopodium
common club mosses
equisetum
grows a meter tall, true eaves, horsetail
rhizomes
underground stems of plant such as ferns
fronds
fern leaves
sporangia
structure, on some fungi, that produces spores
sori
clusters of reproductive cells on the underside of a frond
gymosperms
Naked seed
angiosperms
A flowering plant which forms seeds inside a protective chamber called an ovary.
cones
Seed bearing structures in Gymnosperms.
flowers
Seed bearing structures in Angiosperms.
pollen grain
structure produced by male reproductive organs of a seed plant
pollination
transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma of a plant
seed
the thick white fluid containing spermatozoa that is ejaculated by the male genital tract
embryo
Earliest stages in the development of an organism
seed coat
the protective covering for the seed
gnetophytes
have both gymnosperm and angiosperm characteristics
cycads
evergreen palms with cones
ginkgoes
Has only survived for ornamentation, few make it in the wild, can survive with limited water and air pollution
conifers
cone-bearing plants
fruit
Ovary walls of angiosperm seeds, encases developing seeds for protection.
monocots
seed plant with 1 cotyledon
dicotos
2 seed leaves
cotyledon
a seed leaf inside a leaf
annuals
A flowering plant that completes its entire life cycle in a single year or growing season.
biennails
complete life cycles in two years
perennials
live more then two years