microbio lecture quiz 1 by261-uab

Bacteria are identified routinely by morphological and biochemical tests, supplemented as needed by specialized tests such as?
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with naming and classifying microorganisms, who established the system of scientific nomenclature? father of modern taxonomy?carolus linnaneusdescribes the bacterium's habitat- large intestine or colonE. colidescribes the clustered (staphylo) spherical (coccus) cells -describes the fold-colored (aureus) coloniesstaphylococcus aureusEscherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus are found in the? where?human body E. coli is found in the large intestine, and S. aureus is on skin3 domains?bacteria, eukarya, and archaea3 parts of archea? (extreme environment)hyperthermophiles, methanogens, and extreme halophiles6 types of bacteria?thermotoga, gram-pos, proteobacteria, mito., cyanobact, chloroplastbacteria characteristics: -pro or eukaryote? -single or multiple cell? -type of walls? -divide by? -derive nutrition from?pro- "prenucleus" -single -peptidoglycan cell walls -divide by binary fission -organic or inorganic chemicals or photosynthesisanimals dont have cell wall but plants have walls of?cellulosebinary fissionA form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same sizefungi characteristics: pro or eukary? -cell walls made of? -absorb chemicals for? - yeast is multicell or unicell -molds and mushrooms are multi or unicell?eukaryotes -chitin -energy - yeast=uni -molds/mushrooms=multiMolds consist of masses of mycelia, which are? can you use antibiotics and fungus is the same size as us?composed of filaments called hyphae they are eukaryortes so it is hard to defeat them with antibioticsprotozoa characteristics: pro or eukaryote? -do they absorb/ingest organic chemicals? - may be motile via? - free-living or parasitic? also called?eukarya -yes -motile via pseudopods, cilia, or flagella - either amoebaderive nutrients from living host?parasiticcharacteristics of algae: pro or euka? - cell walls made of? - found where? - use ___________ for energy -produce ________ and _________eukarya -cellulose -found in freshwater, saltwater and soil - use photosysnthesis -o2 and carbscharacteristics of viruses: - type of cell? - consist of ______ or _________ core -coat may be enclosed by a _______ _________ -are replicated only when they are in a? -inert outside ________ _______acellular - dna OR rna core -protein coat -lipid envelope -living host cell -living hostsexamples of a prions?bad influence, CJD in US, mad cow disease, chronic wasting disease in deer populationcharacteristics animal parasite: prokary or eukary? - type of cell? - not strictly _________ - parasitic flatworms and roundworms are called?eukary -multicellular animals -not strictly microganisms -helminthsthe first observation/ first microbes were observed and described accurately by? father of microbiology?anton van leeuwnehoekthe hypothesis that life arises from nonliving matter; a "vital force" is necessary for life?spontaneous generationthe hypothesis that living cells arise only from preexisting living cells?biogenesistheory of spontaneous generation?abiogenesisliving organism can arise spontaneously from nonliving material? examples?theory of spontaneous generation: abiogenesis ex; frogs from mud (hibernation) -maggots from meat (didnt know they hatched)when did : Microbial metabolism studies undertaken • Microbiological techniques refined • Many disease producing organisms discovered; grow best at body temperature; mesophiles • A better understanding of the role of immunity and ways to control and prevent infection by microbesgolden age of microbiologyMany disease producing organisms discovered; grow best at?body temp like mesophilesMesophilesmoderate temperature loving microbesasked to determine why wine and beer soured. Thought to be caused by air mixing with sugars?louis pasteurPasteur's experimentboiled broth and left it in a flask with a curved neck, so air could enter, but microorganisms from the air could not; no microorganisms grew, even after one yearclassic pasteurization of milk required 63C for 30 minutes. Today typically at least 72C for about 15 seconds; known as ?high-temp, short-time (HTST) pasteurization also know as flash pasteurization which helps break down fat and stop milk from separating from cream to liquid1. silkworm disease was caused by a?fungus germ theory of disease2. Pasteur showed that another silkworm disease was caused by?protozoan germ theory of disease3. advocate handwashing to prevent transmission of puerperal fever from one patient to anothergerm theory of disease4. Scientists began to suspect that microorganisms might have an influence on human diseasegerm theory of disease5. the germ theory disease is applying Pasteur's work showing that microbes are in the air, spoil food, and cause animals disease. ___________ ______ used a chemical antiseptic (PHENOL) to prevent surgical wound infectionjoseph listerwho provided indirect evidence that microorganisms were the causal agents of disease?joseph listerwho developed a system of surgery designed to prevent microorganisms from entering wounds as well as methods for treating instruments and surgical dressings; began to use disinfectants to soak bandages?joseph listerwho discovered that a bacterium causes anthrax and provided the experimental step, ______ _________, to demonstrate that a specific microbe causes a specific disease?robert koch kochs postulatesFirst proof that bacteria could transmit disease given by? 4 steps of his experiment?robert koch 1. organism should be present in all animals suffering from disease and absent from all healthy animals 2. organisms must be grown in pure culture outside diseased animal - anthrax (caused by Bacillus anthracis) 3. When culture is inoculated into healthy susceptible animal, animal must develop symptoms of disease 4. organism must be re-isolated from experimentally infected animal and shown to be the same as the original isolateUsed a vaccination procedure called variolation to protect individuals from smallpox? father of immunology? hypothesis?Edward jenner- immunological studies if you are immune to small poc/cowpox, you will not get it againedward jenner with immunological studies: Vaccination - vacca =_______ NOTE: this preceded the work establishing the role of microorganisms in diseasecowThe Birth of Modern Chemotherapy: Dreams of a "________ _________". Treatment of disease with chemicals such as?magic bullet = could destroy pathogen w.out harming host -synthetic drugs and chemicals produced by bacteria and fungi____________ is treatment for medication but is not only for cancerchemotherapydiscovered the first antibiotic by accident? how?alexander flemming observed penicillium fungus made an antibiotic, penicillin that killed S. Aureusstudy of bacteriabacteriologystudy of fungi?mycologystudy of protozoa and parasitic worms?Parasitologyhe study of immunity -Vaccines and interferons are used to prevent and cure bacterial/viral diseases?immunologyA major advance in immunology occurred when Rebecca Lancefield classified? (dont memorize name)streptococci based on their cell wall componentsstepococci group a? group b?strept throat (only female) giving birth thru vagina canal, the baby can catch it and diethe study of viruses discovered that cause of mosaic disease of ? ______ ______________have made it possible to study the structure of viruses in detailVirology tobacco as a virus electron microscopesstudy of how microbes inherit traitsmicrobial geneticsstudy of how DNA directs protein synthesis ex;molecular biology COVID is an RNA virus so must change to DNA test (reverse transcript)study of an organism's genes; has provided new tools for classifying microorganismsgenomicsDNA made from two different sources? how was this found?recombinant DNA inserted animal DNA into bacterial DNA, and the bacteria produced an animal proteinrecombinant DNA Technology steps: 1. genes encode a cell's ________ 2. DNA is the ____________ material 3. watson and frick proposed? 4. role of mRNA is _________ _______1. enzymes 2. hereditary 3. model of DNA structure 4. protein synthesiswho proposed a model of DNA structure? what is dna strucutre?watson and frick -double helixthe smallest unit of matter and cannot be subdivided into smaller substancesatomAtoms interact to formIn the chemical bonds of moleculeshierarchy of cell structure? (big to small)cell, organelle, macromolecule, molecule, atoms(elements)Atoms are composed ofprotons, neutrons, electrons____________ and _____ make up the nucleus _____________ moves around the nucleus in the ___________ ______protons and neutrons in nucleus -electrons in electron shellsAtoms with the same number of ____________ are classified as the same chemical element.protonsEach different chemical element has a different number of?protonsthe total number of proton(s) and neutron(s) in an atom?atomic weightIsotopes of an element are atoms with different numbers of?neutrons# protons= atomic weight= isotope=atomic # proton +neutrons protons+ different # neutronselectrons are arranged in _________ _________ corresponding to diff energy levels.electron shellHow does differ 14/6 C from 12/6 C ? - Proton? Neutron? What is the atomic number of each carbon atom? What is the atomic weight?both have 6 protons 14-carbon= 8 neutron 12-carbon=6 neutrons both have 6 as atomic number 14-C= 14 atomic weight 12-C= 12atomic weighthave their outermost energy level fully occupied by electrons and are NOT reactive?chemically inert elementsdo not have their outermost energy level fully occupied by electrons so are reactive?reactive elementsThe number of missing or extra electrons in the outermost shell is known as the?valence electronsMolecules hold together because the valence electrons of the combining atoms form attractive forces, called ____________ ___________, between the nucleicovalent bonda molecule that contains two or more kinds of atoms? ex;compound waterThe number of protons and electrons are equal in an atom?ionic bondsare charged atoms that have gained or lost electrons? electrons have negative charge: if you lost=? if you gain=?ions lost= positive gain= negative+ charge molecule = lost e- or gain e?cations lost electron- charge molecule = lost e- or gain e?anions gain electronare attractions between ions of opposite charge -1 atom loses electrons, and another gains electronionic bondsare STRONGER and more common in organisms than ionic bonds?Covalent bondsa ___________ ___________ bond forms between 2 H atoms form a hydrogen moleculesingle covalent bondsingle covalent bonds between 3 hydrogen atoms and a carbon atom form a?methane moleculeform when a hydrogen atom that is COVALENTLY bonded to an O or N atom is attracted to another N or O atom in another moleculeHydrogen bondThe sum of the atomic weights in a molecule is the?molecular weightOne mole of a substance is its molecular weight in?grams per 1 litermolecular weight of h20?2h= 2 x1=2 o= 16 MW=18 1 mole weights 18g per 1 linvolve the making or breaking of bonds between atoms? A change in chemical energy occurs during a?chemical reactionsreactions absorb energy For instance: You build muscleanabolic - build upeactions release energy For instance: Eat foodcatabolicOccur when atoms, ions, or molecules combine to form new, larger molecules? anabolism or catabolism? ex; CONSTANTLY MAKIN RBC, NOT ALL BLOOD IS LIQUID SO MOST IS PLASMA.synthesis reaction anabolisma + b --> absynthesis reactionOccur when a molecule is split into smaller molecules, ions, or atoms? anabolism or catabolism?decomposition reaction catAB--> a+bdecompositionNaOH + HCL----> NaCl + H20 is what reaction?exchange reactions which is part of synthesis and part decompCan readily go in either direction • Each direction may need special conditionsreversibility of chemical reaction.... some can be reversed and some cantorganic compoundsCompounds that contain carboninorganic compoundsCompounds that do not contain carbon - some CO2 is inorganicwater: organic or inorganic? -polar or nonpolar? -solute or solvent? -hydrogen bonds absorb?inorganic (no C) -polar (unequal distribution of charges) -solvent -absorb heat(temp buffer)Polar substances undergo dissociation in water, forming?solutesSubstances that dissociate into one or more H+ (protons) and one or more negative ion? ex;acids HCL-->H+ + Cl- = acid/bleachSubstances that dissociate into one or more OH− (hydroxide) ions? ex;base NaOH--> Na+ + OH-Substances that dissociate into cations and anions, neither of which is H+ or OH−saltThe concentration of H+ in a solution is expressed as? Increasing [H+] increases acidity • Increasing [OH−] increases alkalinitypHMost organisms grow best between pH?6.5 - 8.5compounds commonly contain hydrogen, oxygen, and/or nitrogen in addition to carbon?organic compoundThe chain of carbon atoms in an organic molecule is the?carbon Skeltonbond to carbon skeletons and are responsible for most of the chemical properties of a particular organic compound?functional groups like OHIdentify the functional groups in an amino acidSmall organic molecules can combine into large?macromoleculesMacromolecules are polymers consisting of many small repeating molecules called? they are joined by?monomers dehydration synthesis or condensation reactionsMolecules with same chemical formula, but different structuresisomerServe as cell structures/ cellular energy sources • Include sugars/starches • C, H, and O with the formula (CH2O)n • Many are isomerscarbsare simple sugars with three to seven carbon atom? ex;monosaccharides Glucose and deoxyriboseformed when two monosaccharides are joined in a dehydration synthesis? how can they be broken down?disaccharides hydrolysisconsist of tens or hundreds of monosaccharides joined through dehydration synthesis? ex?polysaccharides Starch, glycogen, dextran, and cellulose are polymers of glucose that differ in their bonding and functionPrimary components of cell membranes • Consist of C, H, and O • Are nonpolar and insoluble in waterfats/ triglycerides /lipidContain glycerol and fatty acids; formed by dehydration synthesissimple lipids/ fats/ triglyceridssimple lipid with no double bonds in the fatty acids? one or more double bonds in the fatty acids?saturated fat unsaturated fat2 types of saturated fats?cis and transsaturated fat with H atoms on the same side of the double bond? : H atoms on opposite sides of the double bond?cis transContain C, H, and O + P, N, and/or S -cell membranes are made of phospholipids -have polar and nonpolar regionscomplex lipidsCell membranes are made of complex lipids called? what are the 3 parts?phospholipids • Glycerol, two fatty acids, and a phosphate group have polar and nonpolar regionsphospholipid heads are? phospholipid tails are?polar, hydrophilic nonpolar, hydrophobiclipid that had Four carbon rings with an -OH group attached to one ring • Part of membranes that keep the membranes fluidsteroidsC, H, O, N, and sometimes S • Essential in cell structure/function • Enzymes speed reactions • Transporter proteins that move chemicals across membranes • Flagella for movement • Some bacterial toxins & cell structuresproteinstypes of proteinsamino acids, enzymes, pepetide bondsProteins consist of subunits calledamino acidsamino acids contain alpha-carbon that has an attached what?carboxyl group (cooh), amino group (nh2), side group8 types of amino acids? how many total amino acids found in proteins?glycine, alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, serine, threonine, cysteine, methionine, and glutamic acid 20AA Exist in either of two stereoisomers: what forms are often found in nature?D or L (mirror with hands) L-forms____________ between amino acids are formed by dehydration synthesispeptide bonds4 levels of protein structure?primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternarywith levels of protein structure, the ________ is a polypeptide chainprimary structurewith levels of protein structure, the ___________ occurs when the AA chain folds and coils in a helix or pleated sheet2nd structure helix and pleated sheet (3 polypeptide stands)with levels of protein structure, _________ _________ occurs when the helix or sheet folds irregularly, forming what?tertiary structure #3D shape disulfide bridge, hydrogen bond and ionic bond between AA in the chainconsist of 2 or more polypeptides?quaternary structure the relation of several folded polypeptide chains form a proteinProteins can undergo?denaturationoccurs when proteins encounter hostile environments such as temperature and pH, and therefore lose their shapes and functionsdenaturation_________ proteins consist of amino acids and other organic molecules. ex;conjugated proteins Glycoproteins, Nucleoproteins, Lipoproteinsnucleic acids: consist of what elements? -nucleotides consist of? 3things -glyosidic bonds consist of?CHONPH -5-carbon(pentose) sugar, phosphate grp, nitrogen base (purine or pryrimdine) -pentose and nitrogen-containing basedNucleotides consist ofpentose sugar, nitrogenous base, phosphate group3 types of nucleic acidsDNA, RNA, ATPDeoxyribonucleic acid • Contains? -shaped?contains deoxyribose and double helixin dna adenine hydrogen bond with? cytostine hydrogen bonds with?thymine guaninebase pairs for dna ? rna?adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine adenine, uracil, cytosine, and guaninein DNA, Order of the nitrogen-containing bases forms the?genetic instructions for organismRNA contains? shaped? base pair bonds?-ribose -single stranded a-d, c-gSeveral kinds of RNA play a specific role in?protein synthesisAdenosine triphosphate is Made of ?ribose, adenine and 3 phosphatesWhat stores the chemical energy released by some chemical reactions?ATPin ATP, it releases phosphate groups by ____________ to liberate energyhydrolysis