BY 124 lab quiz 1

What are characteristics of kingdom plantae?
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where the gametophyte generation alternates with the sporophyte.
the gametophyte is haploid and multicellular. the sporophyte is diploid and multicellular.
the gametophyte undergoes mitosis to produce gametes which will fuse to form a diploid zygote.
the zygote will undergo mitosis, yielding the sporophyte.
then the sporophyte produces haploid spores via meiosis.
Examples of Bryophytesliverworts, hornworts, mossesWhat are characteristics of bryophytes?gametophyte dominant, flagellated sperm, no true roots, stems or leaves, have rhizoids(root-like hairs), cells don't contain lignin, no xylem or phloem, no cuticle, spores dispersed by wind, not well adapted to landWhich phyla are nonvascular seedless?Phyla bryophyta (mosses), hepatophyta (liverworts), anthocerophyta(hornworts)what are characteristics of phylum hepatophyta (liverworts)?first land plant, flattened leaf-like, reproduces sexually like moss and asexually by producing gemmae (cup-like structure)what are the characteristics of anthocerophyta (hornworts)?closely related to vascular plantstracheophytes belong to which group?vascular seedless plantsExamples of tracheophytesferns, club mossesWhat are characteristics of tracheophytes?Sporophyte dominant, has lignin, true roots, stems, leaves, xylem, phloem, cuticleWhich phyla are vascular seedless?Phyla lycophyta (club mosses and spike mosses) and monilophyta (ferns, horsetails, whisk ferns)what are the characteristics of phylum lycophyta (club moss or ground pine)?true leaves, gametophyte is dependent of symbiotic foil fungi, can be epiphytic (use another structure/ other plant for support), rhizomes (horizontal stems), flagellated spermwhat are the 3 different types of phlyum monilophyta?ferns, whisk fern, and horsetailcharacteristics of a fern?true roots, leaves, stem, rhizomes, upright stems, leaves called fronds, spores from under leaf (sori), gametophyte is free-livingcharacteristics of a whisk fern?LACK true roots and leaves, thin, green stemcharacteristics of horsetail?equisetum (only surviving genus), roots, stems and small leaves, free-living gametophyte, flagellated spermgymnosperms and angiosperms belong to which Group?Vascular seed bearingWhat are characteristics of gymnosperms and angiosperms (vascular bearing plants)?Sporophyte dominant, sperm replace by pollen, has lignin, true roots, stems, leaves, xylem, phloem, cuticlenaked seed, no fruits surronding seeds, only has tracheids, no vessel elements in xylem?gymnospermsWhich phyla are gymnosperms?Phyla gnetophyta, ginkgophyta, cyadophyta (sago palm), coniferophyta (pine)characteristics of coniferophyte?pines, firs, spruce, cedar, cool climate, woody (soft), bear cones,characteristics of cycadophyta?include sago palm, resemble plams but notcharacteristics of ginkgophyta?only extant specis= ginkgo bilboa, sheds leaves at one time, herbal supplement to boost memory,characteristics of gnetophyta?largest leaves in world (welwitschia), mormon tea and epihdria,Which phyla are angiosperms?Anthophyta (flowers)Which phyla have vascular tissue?Phyla lycophyta, Monilophyta, cyadophyta, ginkgophyta, gnetophyta, coniferophyta, AnthophytaWhich phyla are gametophyte dominant?Bryophyta, heptophyta, anthocerophytaWhich phyla have true leaves, stems, and roots?Phyla lycophyta, Monilophyta, cyadophyta, ginkgophyta, gnetophyta, coniferophyta, AnthophytaWhich phyla have seeds?cyadophyta, ginkgophyta, gnetophyta, coniferophyta, AnthophytaWhich phyla have spores?Bryophyta, heptophyta, anthocerophyta, lycophyta, monilophytaWhat does xylem transport?water and minerals from roots to leaves (1 way)What does phloem transport?sugars from leaves to rest of plant (2 way)Which plant has parasitic sporophyte?Mosses (bryophyta)Why do tracheophytes need moisture?They produce spermWhat is a megaspore?female gametophyte (egg)What is a microspore?male gametophyte (pollen)What is antheridia?male gametangia (sperm)What is archegonia?female gametangia (eggs)What are the main parts of a plant?Shoot and rootsWhat are the parts of a plant shoot?Leaves, stem, budsWhat is the purpose of roots?Anchor plant, absorb water and nutrientsWhat are the three types of roots?taproots, fibrous roots, adventitious rootsWhat is plant embryonic tissue called?Meristematic tissueWhat is included under meristematic tissue?Apical, meristem, lateral meristem, shoots and rootsWhat are the three types of plant cells?parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchymaCharacteristics of parenchyma cellsThin primary cell wall, no secondary cell wall, does metabolism, holds water and stores nutrients in large vacuoleCharacteristics of collenchyma cellsRigid primary cell walls, no secondary cell walls, capable of elongationCharacteristics of sclerenchyma cellsSecondary cell walls contain lignin, dead tissue found in areas that have stopped growingWhat are the three types of plant tissues?dermal, vascular, groundWhat is the purpose of dermal tissue?protection, prevent water lossWhere is dermal tissue found?Leaves, roots, stemWhat is the purpose of periderm tissue?Dead tissue that comes from ground meristem and replaces epidermidis in secondary growthWhat are the two types of vascular tissues?xylem and phloemWhat is the purpose of the xylem?transport waterCharacteristics of the xylemDead, vessel elements and tracheids are cell types, transports water from roots to shootWhat is the purpose of the phloem?transport sugars and to and from leavesCharacteristics of the phloemCan transport upwards and downwards, companion cells and sieve tube cells are cell typesWhat is the purpose of ground tissue?storage, photosynthesis, supportCharacteristics of ground tissueusually parenchyma, located between dermal and vascular tissuesAnnualslive one yearBiennialslive for 2 years (year 1= vegetative growth, year 2 = flowering)Perennialslive for many yearsWhat is a root cap?tough covering of the root tip that protects the meristemMonocots vs. DicotsMonocots - 1 leaf, veins scattered/parallel, fibrous root flowers grow in multiples of 3,6,9. Dicots - 2 leaves, circular veins/netted, tap root, flowers, grow in multiples of 4 or 5