Agricultural products
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Terms in this set (53)
Miscellaneous -honey, tuba, etcPOSTHARVEST LOSSESany change in availability, edibility, acceptability, and quality of the products Quantitative and Qualitative• Harvesting - cracks • Packaging - mechanical damage • Distribution - mechanical damage, decay, over-ripeningCause of POSTHARVEST LOSS30%Average POSTHARVEST LOSS1. Increase area of production 2. Expand area of production 3. Control the rate of population growth 4. Decrease postharvest lossesMETHODS OF SOLVING FOOD NEEDS1. Increased food supply to feed more people 2. Cheaper than increasing yield 3. Less risky 4. Energy is conserved (fuel used in manufacturing the inputs during production, labor, etc.) 5. More rapid in producing the desired resultsADVANTAGES OF DECREASING LOSSES1. Food security 2. Food safety 3. Reduce/minimize, postharvest losses 4. Raise/maintain quality of fresh produceTHE NEED OR IMPORTANCE OF POSTHARVEST HANDLING• Lack of awareness that postharvest losses can be prevented or minimized • Very few schools are teaching postharvest handling • Extension workers have little or no background in postharvest horticulture • Very few researchers on postharvest handling of tropical perishables • Very few information materials on postharvest handling of tropical perishablesSTATUS OF PH HORTICULTURE IN THE PHILIPPINES1. Peculiarity of fresh produce (Diversity, Seasonality, Bulkiness, Substitutability and elastic demand) 2. Agricultural production is not seen as a business enterprise a. Growers are not market-oriented because of the scale of production 3. Farmers hardly do marketing and value-adding activities 4. Lack of awareness of stakeholders in the supply chain that horticultural crops are perishable 5. Lack of or inadequate infrastructure and logistics support 6. In domestic shipping, horticultural crops are generally of low priorityFACTORS MAKING POSTHARVEST HANDLING TECHNOLOGICAL IMPROVEMENTS DIFFICULT1. Losses are high 2. Opportunities to export 3. Global competition is fierce 4. Growing attention to quality 5. Changing tastes and lifestyles 6. Growing concern about food safety 7. Heightened health consciousness 8. Increasing urbanization and industrialization 9. Production areas are now farther away from marketsTHE NEED FOR POSTHARVEST HANDLINGR.A. 10915AGRICULTURAL AND BIO-PROCESSING RA ???AGRICULTURAL AND BIO-PROCESSINGrefers to local activity or series of activities to maintain or raise the quality or change the form or characteristics of agricultural, fishery, forestry and biological products/materials and includes, but is not limited to, cleaning, sorting, grading, treating, drying, dehydrating, grinding, mixing, milling, canning, dressing, slaughtering, freezing, pasteurizing, conditioning, packaging, repacking, transporting of agricultural, fishery, forestry and other biological products/materialsSCOPE FROM R.A. 10915Preparation of engineering designs, plans, specifications, project studies, feasibility studies and estimates of agricultural and bio-processing and postharvest facilities and system.Storageact of safekeeping of the quantity and quality of an agricultural material so as to prevent them from deterioration for a specific period of time beyond their normal shelf lifeAgricultural storageany deposit or holding of farm product, fertilizer, grains, feed and other related supplies in facilities or container, often to prevent contamination or for times when production cannot meet demand. It is an important marketing function which involves holding and processing goods from the time they are produced until they are needed for consumption.Postproductiongeneral term applied to the handling of crops, whether used for food or other purposes, from harvest until they reach the final consumerPostharvest handlingprocedures to which crops are subjected after harvest including all technological aspects of distributionPrimary processingpostproduction activities that involve handling of produce to make them suitable to the manufacturer or consumer and can still be changed into other forms. The original plant part can still be recognized.Secondary processingpostproduction activities that involve conversion of harvested crops into stable products that can no longer be changed into other forms. It is also referred to as full processing.Raw material handlingpostharvest handling of fruits and vegetables intended for processing, and of florist crops for making dried plant art forms.Shelf lifethe time during which a commodity that is brought to the market immediately after harvest will stay in good condition when displayed for sale or stored at home prior to use or consumption.Postharvest lifethe period from harvest up to the time the produce can still be used for its intended purpose, either as food (for fruits and vegetables) or decoration (for florist crops).Storage lifeperiod from start to end of any method of commercial storage, assuming that upon removal of the commodity from storage, there is still time to market and use it.Poststorage lifetime that the commodity will last after storage regardless of usage.AGRICULTUAL AND BIOSYSTEMS PROCESSINGrefers to the transformation of agricultural products, such as crops and livestock, into food, feed, fiber, and other value-added products.AGRICULTUAL AND BIOSYSTEMS PROCESSINGThis field combines engineering, biology, and chemistry principles to develop and improve the processes used in the agricultural industry.AGRICULTUAL AND BIOSYSTEMS PROCESSINGIt encompasses a wide range of activities, including primary processing (e.g. cleaning, sorting, washing, grading), secondary processing (e.g. brewing, distilling, fermentation), and tertiary processing (e.g. packaging, labeling, distribution)PRIMARY PROCESSINGrefers to the initial conversion of raw agricultural products into a form that is ready for consumption or further processing.• Cleaning: Removing dirt, debris, and other contaminants from the product. • Sorting: Separating the product by size, color, or other characteristics. • Grading: Assessing the quality of the product based on certain criteria, such as size or ripeness. • Peeling: Removing the outer layer of the product, such as the skin of a fruit or vegetable. • Slicing: Cutting the product into smaller pieces, such as slices of bread or deli meat. • Chopping: Cutting the product into smaller pieces, such as chopped vegetables or meat.PRIMARY PROCESSING examplesSECONDARY PROCESSINGbuilds on primary processing by adding value to the product through additional steps such as fermentation, brewing, or distillation. Secondary processing can also include adding ingredients to the product to enhance its flavor, texture, or nutritional value. For example, adding spices, herbs, or seasonings to meat, fish, or poultry, adding sugar, cocoa, or vanilla to chocolate, and adding vitamins, minerals, or other nutrients to processed foods.• Fermentation: The process of using microorganisms to convert sugars or carbohydrates into other products such as alcohol or acid. This can be used to make products such as beer, wine, yogurt, cheese, and pickles. • Brewing: A process of fermenting grains, fruits, or vegetables, specifically to make beer or other fermented beverages. • Distillation: The process of separating liquids by heating them and then condensing the vapor to obtain a purified liquid. Distillation is often used to create alcoholic beverages like whiskey, rum, gin, and vodka.SECONDARY PROCESSING examples• Pressing: Extracting liquid from the product, such as juice from fruits or oil from seeds. • Drying: Removing moisture from the product, such as drying fruits or vegetables to make them shelf-stable. • Freezing: Lowering the temperature of the product to preserve it, such as freezing fruits or vegetables. • Canning: Packaging the product in airtight containers and heating it to a high temperature to kill any bacteria and preserve the product. • Smoking: Exposing the product to smoke in order to preserve it and add flavor, such as smoking meat or fish • Pasteurization: The process of heating a liquid, typically a food or beverage, to a specific temperature for a certain period of time in order to kill any harmful bacteria that may be present. • Homogenization: The process of breaking down fat globules in milk so that they remain suspended in the milk, which creates a smooth and uniform consistency. • Refining: The process of removing impurities from a product, such as refining sugar from sugar cane, refining oil from seeds, or refining salt from sea water.FOOD PROCESSINGTERTIARY PROCESSINGthe final stage of agricultural and biosystems processing, which focuses on creating new and innovative products that can be used in a variety of different applications.• Functional foods: Foods that have been specifically formulated to provide additional health benefits beyond basic nutrition. This can include things like fortified breakfast cereals, probiotic yogurt, and protein bars. • Bioplastics: Plastic materials that are made from renewable biological sources, such as corn starch, instead of fossil fuels. • Biofuels: Fuels that are made from renewable biological sources, such as ethanol or biodiesel. • Cosmetics: Personal care products such as makeup, lotions, and shampoos that are made from natural ingredients derived from agricultural products. • Pharmaceuticals: Medicines that are derived from agricultural products such as plants and microorganisms. • Industrial materials: Materials that are made from agricultural products such as fibers, adhesives, and resinsTERTIARY PROCESSING examples• Agricultural and Biosystems Processing plays a critical role in ensuring the safety and quality of the food supply. This includes controlling food-borne illnesses through proper sanitation, pasteurization, and irradiation of food products, as well as ensuring food safety through the use of food additives and preservatives. • It also contributes to the economic development of rural communities and the competitiveness of the agricultural sector by creating new and innovative products. For example, new processing techniques can create new products from agricultural waste, such as turning wheat straw into cellulosic ethanol. • Additionally, agricultural and biosystems processing can help to improve the nutritional value of food products, as well as make them more convenient and accessible to consumers.IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURAL AND BIOSYSTEMS PROCESSING1. Food security - to feed the increasing population 2. Huge opportunities for exporting fruits and vegetables 3. Global Competition is fierce 4. Growing attention on quality and safety of consumers in different markets 5. Heightened health consciousness 6. Changing tastes and lifestyle 7. Increasing urbanization and industrializationTRENDS & ISSUES IN AGRICULTURAL BIO-PROCESSING• Problem: losses are high • Losses - any change in the availability, edibility, acceptability, and quality of the produce • Postharvest losses are higher than losses that occur during production • Postharvest losses are incurred within a short period of timeFood security TRENDS & ISSUES IN AGRICULTURAL BIO-PROCESSINGIssues and concerns: ▪ Quality and safety ▪ Pesticide residues ▪ Storage/shelf life extension ▪ Sanitary and phytosanitary measuresHuge opportunities for exporting fruits and vegetables TRENDS & ISSUES IN AGRICULTURAL BIO-PROCESSING• The Philippines is competing with other countries not only in the global trade but also in the domestic market. • Competition with global trade of mango (Japan) • Imported fruits competing with locally-grown fruits3. Global Competition is fierce TRENDS & ISSUES IN AGRICULTURAL BIO-PROCESSING• Export market Domestic markets: ▪ institutional buyers ▪ processors ▪ wet market • Some markets require food safety standards certification4. Growing attention on quality and safety of consumers in different markets TRENDS & ISSUES IN AGRICULTURAL BIO-PROCESSING• increasing consumption of fruits and vegetables due to their nutritional benefits; postharvest handling affects the extent of losses in nutrient content.5. Heightened health consciousness TRENDS & ISSUES IN AGRICULTURAL BIO-PROCESSING• increasing patronage of supermarkets because of the convenience, wide variety of food items and better quality; fresh-cuts are also popular among working women and young urban professionals.6. Changing tastes and lifestyle• production areas are now farther away from consumption centers; maintaining the quality and safety of the produce along the supply chain requires application of postharvest technologies7. Increasing urbanization and industrialization TRENDS & ISSUES IN AGRICULTURAL BIO-PROCESSING