The Rise of Modernism: Art of the Late 19th Century (Chapter 29) by tennislove

Terms in this set (57)

*Depicts a funeral in a bleak, provincial landscape attended by "common, trivial" people; an officious clergymen reads the Office of the Dead
*Has the traditional scale of a monumental history painting, but the subject's ordinariness and antiheroic composition horrified critics
*Somberly clad groups of figures create wall at eye level and blocks any views into deep space; the faces are portraits, including some of Courbet's sisters and friends
*Barren cliffs and overcast sky behind and above; dark pit of grave opens into viewer's space in foreground
*Artist sparingly used bright colors- nothing heroic, sublime, or dramatic here
*Critics also faulted its disrespect for conventional composition standards: instead of arranging figures in a pyramid that would indicate hierarchy of importance, Courbet lined them up in rows across the picture frame-> more democratic; critics also noted there is no mention of an afterlife, just death and burial as physical facts
*When some of his works were refused by the jury for a Salon at International Exhibition of 1855, Courbet rented a nearby building and installed a show of his own works which he called the Pavilion of Realism
*Courbet's large daubs of paint inspired Impressionists but others derided his "carelessness and brutalities" the use of IMPASTO (thick, rough application of paint) violated accepted standards of finish
*Conservatives raged at him as a dangerous radical
*He treated the everyday with the gravity and monumentality of traditional narrative painting
*He sweepingly condemned all usual subjects of religion, mythology, and history- spelling out what others had begun to feel but dared not put into words or pictures
*Socialist in politics, with the goal to end economic and social oppression of one class over another
*Admired Rembrandt, had strong links to Caravaggesque tradition
*Funeral is of an unnamed bourgeois citizen of Ornans
*was inspired by the 1848 funeral of Jean-Antoine Oudot, Courbet's maternal grandfather and veteran of the Revolution of 1793, but not a particular record: Oudot is shown in profile on extreme left
*Two men in 18th century clothes are Oudot's peers
*Courbet is linking the revolutions of 1793 and 1848; both sought to advance democracy in France
*His intentionally simple and direct methods of expression seemed unbearably crude to his traditional contemporaries, and he was called a primitive
*He was denounced for supposed vulgarity and lack of spiritual content
*His socialist viewpoint colored his entire outlook
*Millet grew up on a farm and, despite living in Paris between 1837 and 1848, never felt comfortable in the city; his support of the 1848 Revolution led him to focus on peasant life; he earned a state commission that allowed him to move from Paris to the village of Barbizon, created BARBIZON SCHOOL of landscapes and rural scenes
*This is the best-known of his mature work, shows three women gathering grain at harvest
*Warm colors and slightly hazy atmosphere are soothing, but the scene is one of relief offered to the rural poor; required hours of backbreaking work to gather enough wheat to produce a single loaf of bread
*When the painting was shown in 1857, he was labeled a realist and even a socialist
*The Barbizon school's works became increasingly popular after 1850 as Paris became a noisy, crowded metropolis- new appeal of peaceful country life amid social and political effects of the Revolution of 1848
*Millet characteristically placed his monumental figures in the foreground, against a broad sky
*Although Millet's works have a sentimentality absent from those of Courbet, the French public reacted with disdain and suspicion, seeing his works as political manifesto
*Millet was no radical but was championed by liberal critics because his work was the opposite of classical history paintings sanctioned by the establishment
*His "Heroes of the Soil" were symbols of the ceaseless labor of the peasants' inexorable fate
*His paintings monumentalize a rural way of life that was rapidly disappearing under the pressure of the Industrial Revolution
*After the Revolution of 1848, Millet's investing the poor with grandeur did meet with the approval of the prosperous classes
*Middle-class landowners resisted granting traditional gleaning rights and linked the poor with the dangerous working class and the rise of socialism
*Peasants were seen as victims of the evils of the age of mechanization
*Honore Daumier was a defender of the urban working class, and in his art he boldly confronted authority with social criticism and political protest, for which he was imprisoned- his specialty was the URBAN poor as opposed to the rural
*was a painter, sculptor, and master lithograph artist; distributed satirical lithographs to the widely read, liberal French Republican journal Caricature
*This unfinished painting depicts the grimy and cramped railway carriage of the 1860's; the riders are poor and can only afford third-class tickets
*First and second- class carriages had closed compartments, but third- class passengers were crammed together on benches that filled the carriage
*Daumier's repeated subject was the disinherited masses of the 19th century industrialism- anonymous, insignificant, dumbly patient with a lot they could not change; he saw people as they ordinarily appeared: faces vague, blank, and impersonal, and unprepared for observers- unrehearsed details of human existence
*Anticipated the spontaneity and candor of scenes captured with modern camera
*Biting political cartoonist, contributed satirical drawings to various Paris weekly papers for most of his life
*Turned to painting in 1840's but found no public for his work
*This painting reflects the compactness of Millet but is painted so freely that it looks raw and unfinished yet Daumier's power derives from this very freedom! His concern is not for the tangible surface of reality but for the emotional meaning behind it.
*Daumier portrayed the lower classes as hardworking and earnest, humanized like in the novels of Dickens
*Though physically crowded, the people take no notice of one another
*Painting contains human sympathy like Rembrandt's whom he revered
*Title in English is Luncheon on the Grass; here we see Manet's interest in Realism and
modernist principles
*Depicted are two nude women and two clothed men; foreground figures all based on
living, identifiable people-his favorite model, his brother, and the sculptor Leenhof
*The two men wear fashionable Parisian attire of the 1860's; the foreground nude is
unidealized and looks disturbingly unabashed and at ease, looking directly at the viewer
without shame or flirtatiousness.
*The picture outraged the public, who saw the promiscuous in a Parisian park instead of
a traditional pastoral scene
*Manet's goal was not to shock but involved a reassessment of the entire range of art,
including references and allusions to history painting, portraiture, pastoral scenes,
nudes, and even religious scenes-synthesis of the history of painting
*Style also prompted severe criticism: figures in soft focus and a broadly painted landscape, including the pool in which the second woman bathes; the loose manner of painting contrasts with the clear forms of the harshly lit foreground trio and the pile of
discarded female attire and foods at lower left
*Lighting has strong contrasts: in main figures, many values are summed up in one or
two lights or darks, creating flattened forms and a hard snapping presence
*In true modernist fashion, Manet was using art to call attention to art-moving away
from illusion and toward open acknowledgement of painting's properties, such as the flat painting surface-but the public saw only a crude sketch w/o customary finish
along with unorthodox subject matter
*The most celebrated woman artist of the 19th century, she won the Legion of Honor in 1865; her work contains Realist elements but she is considered more of a naturalist
*Trained by her father, who was a proponent of enfranchisement and education for women; she believed she had a special role to play in creating a new society
*A Realist passion for accuracy drove her painting, but she resisted depicting the problematic social and political situations seen in Courbet, Manet, etc.; instead she turned to the animal world, combining a scientist's knowledge of equine anatomy with an honest love and admiration for wild and domestic
animals
*studied live animals at the Parisian horse fair and carcasses at slaughterhouses (to gain access to these all-male preserves, Bonheur got police
permission to dress in men's clothing)
*For this, her best-known work, she adopted a panoramic scene like Burial at Ornans, but in contrast to its still figures she has farm horses and grooms seen on parade at the annual Parisian horse sale; some horses rear up, others plod or trod, guided on foot or ridden by trainers
*The uneven line of the march and thundering pounding were based on observation and also she acknowledged from the Classical model of the Parthenon frieze (Fig. 5-48)
*She was an artist who worked outdoors
*She received a French government commission that led to her first great
success
*She became established as a leading painter of animals and eventually as the most famous women artist of her time
*Her theme is of humanity's union with nature
*She shares Millet's reverence for peasant life, but her real subject is the animals within the landscape
*Dramatic lighting and loose brushwork are based on the style of Gericault
*Captivated viewers eagerly bought engraved
reproductions of the work, making it one of the
most well-known paintings of the century
*These artists called public attention to the
"heroism of modern life"
*Her workers are far less pathetic than those of
Millet or Courbet
*The Realist foundation in empiricism and positivism appealed to artists
in Germany, Russia, England, and the United States as well as France- well established by the end of the century
*Homer determined to paint scenes that resonated with modern audiences;
he had firsthand knowledge of the Civil War- served in Union campaign as a reporter for Harper's Weekly
*This was painted at the end of the Civil War; although simple and direct it provides a significant commentary on the effects and aftermath of the catastrophic national conflict
*Painting depicts a man with his back to the viewer, harvesting wheat
*We know he is a veteran from title and also from uniform and canteen thrown on the ground in the lower right corner
*His involvement in meaningful and productive work implies a smooth transition from war to peace-he has turned from harvesting men to
harvesting wheat
*This transition to work and the fate of disbanded soldiers was the subject
of national concern: America's ability to effect a smooth transition was seen as evidence of its national strength
*Homer's painting thus reinforced the perception of the country's greatness
*One of America's first followers of Manet-went to Paris to study
*Was a pictorial reporter throughout the Civil War and continued as a magazine illustrator, yet also a talented painter
*Painted sunlit scenes with fresh delicacy, might be called pre-Impressionist
*The painting also comments symbolically on the deaths of the soldiers and the death of Abraham Lincoln: by the 1860's, farmers used cradled scythes to harvest wheat; however, Homer chose not to use this historical reality
and to show the farmer with a single~biaded scythe, transforming him into a symbol of the Grim Reaper and the painting into an elegy for the soldiers who died and for the assassinated president
*Eakins was a master Realist portrait and genre painter, studied both painting and medical anatomy in Philadelphia; he was resolutely a Realist, who wanted to paint things as he saw them rather than as the public may wish for them to be portrayed-reflecting the 19th century American desire for accurate depiction and truth
*The too-brutal realism of this early masterpiece caused the jury to reject it for the Philadelphia American independence centennial
*Presents the renowned surgeon Dr. Samuel Gross in the operating amphitheater of the Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia, where the painting now hangs
*The choice of subject attests to the public's increasing faith in scientific and medical progress
*Dr. Gross, with bloody fingers and scalpel, lectures about his surgery on a young man's leg-patient had osteomyelitis, a bone infection; all the colleagues have been identified by historians, and the patient's mother covers her face
*Anesthetics had been introduced in 1846; the painting records a particular event at a particular time, like photography (Fig. 28-65)
*Eakins' concern for anatomical correctness led him to investigate the human form and humans in motion with regular cameras and with a special camera invented by a kinesiologist-> anticipated motion pictures
*The light in the center falls not on the doctor's face but on his forehead, his mind (symbolic)
*A few years later, Eakins' commitment to the unvarnished truth proved costly: when he removed the loineloth from a male nude model in a mixed life-drawing class, the scandalized Academy board gave him a choice changing his teaching methods or resigning, and he resigned
*Dramatic use of light inspired by Rembrandt and Velazquez was not for emotion but to make a point: modern science shines the light of
knowledge on the ignorance of darkness and
fear
*Realist photographer and scientist came to the United States from England in the 1850's and settled in San Francisco, where he earned a prominent reputation for his photos of the western US
*In 1872, Governor of California Leland Stanford sought Muybridge's advice in settling
a bet about whether, at any point in stride, all 4 feet of a horse galloping at top speed are off the ground; through his sequential photographing, Muybridge proved that they were
*That was the beginning of his photographic studies of successive stages in human
and animal motion-"details too quick for the human eye to capture"
*His discoveries received extensive publicity through the book Animal Locomotion, published in 1887; his motion photographs earned him a place in history of science
as well as art
*His studies influenced many others including Degas and Duchamp
*He presented his work to audiences with a device he invented called the zoopraxiscope, which projected his sequence of images onto a screen; the illusion of motion was created by a physical fact of human eyesight called "persistence of vision," meaning that the brain holds whatever the eye sees for a fraction of a
second for a second after the eye stops seeing it; this illusion of continuous change lies at the heart of the "realism" of all cinema
*Considered father of motion photography
*Wedded two different technologies, devising a set of cameras capable of photographing action at successive points
*He produced 100,000 photographs devoted to the study of animal and human locomotion
*His photographs convey a modern sense of dynamics, reflecting the new tempo of life in the machine age (faster)
*The far-reaching aesthetic implications were to
be realized only later because of the tremendous
gap between scientific fact vs. visual perception
and artistic representation
*Expatriate American artist John Singer Sargent was a younger contemporary of
Eakins and Muybridge; studied art in Paris before settling in London, where he was
known as a cosmopolitan, cultivated gentleman and a fashionable portrait painter
*He developed a looser, more dashing Realist portrait style, in contrast to Eakins'
carefully rendered details; he learned his fluent brushing of paint in thin layers and
achievement of quick and lively illusion from his study of Velazquez, whose Las Meninas may have influenced this family portrait
*The four girls (the children of one of Sargent's close friends) appear in a hall and
small drawing room of their Paris home
*The informal, eccentric arrangement of their slight figures suggests how much at ease they were in this familiar space with such objects as the monumental Japanese vases, the red screen, and the fringed rug, whose scale emphasizes the children's diminutive stature
*Sargent must have known the daughters well and liked them; relaxed and trustful,
they allowed him to record a gradation of young innocence: the naive, wondering openness of the little girl in the foreground, the grave artlessness of the 10-year-old, and the slightly self-conscious pose of the adolescents
*The casual positioning of the figures and seemingly random setting convey a
spontaneity; the children seem to look up at an adult who has asked them to interrupt
their activity and "look this way"
*This painting is an embodiment of the
Realist belief that the artist's business is to
record the modern being in modern context
*Henry Ossawa Tanner was the most successful African American painter of the
late 19th and early 20th centuries
*Son of a bishop in the African Methodist Episcopal Church, he grew up in Philadelphia, sporadically studied art under Thomas Eakins, then worked as a photographer and drawing teacher in Atlanta
*In 1891, he moved to Paris for further academic training; he painted a few African
American genre subjects but ultimately turned to biblical painting to make his art serve religion
*In Paris he combined Eakins' belief in careful study from nature with a desire to portray with dignity the life of ordinary people he had been raised among
*The mood of this painting is quiet devotion, not far removed from the Realism of
Millet and his devotion for Rembrandt
*The grandfather, grandchild, and main objects in the room are painted with the
greatest detail, while everything else dissolves into loose strokes of color and light
*Expressive lighting reinforces the painting's reverent spirit, with deep shadows
emphasizing the man's devout concentration and golden light from the window illuminating the quiet expression of thanksgiving on the younger face
*Thanks to a long tradition of liberalism in Philadelphia and also to Eakins' enlightened attitude, the city became the leading center of minority artists in the US
*Eakins encouraged women and African Americans to study art seriously at a time
when professional careers were closed to them
*Tanner was the first important African-American artist, studied with Eakins in the
1880's
*The deep sense of sanctity expressed here in
terms of everyday experience became
increasingly important for Tanner
*The artists' choice of subjects also reflected the way in which Impressionism was rooted in the industrial and urban developments of the time; most Impressionists depicted scenes in and around Paris, where industrialization and
urbanization had greatest impact
*The expanding railway network brought throngs of people into Paris; this station was centrally located and adjacent to a bustling, fashionable commercial area-Monet captured the area's energy and vitality
*As the train enters the station, the tall buildings that were becoming a major component of the Parisian landscape are just visible through the background haze
*The agitated paint application contributes to the sense of energy
*Monet trained briefly with an academic teacher but soon left the studio to paint
outdoors, en plein air; he created his own floating studio on a boat
*Monet saw the works of Turner but did not have the same commitment to feeling or narrative, saying, "The Romantics have had their day"; instead he painted simple moments, capturing the play of light quickly before it changed
*This railway station was a new structure made of steel and glass, and Monet was fascinated with the way the light descended through the glass ceiling and filtered through the trains' steam
*He setup his easel in the station (to the consternation of the station manager)
and painted 12 different views under varying light conditions
*He was not interested in the human drama of arrivals and departures or any symbolic importance of the objects he painted
*Two important ideas are expressed here:
1) A quickly painted oil sketch most accurately
records a landscape's general appearance;he
raised the traditional "sketch aesthetics" to the
same level as completed painting.
2) An artist can see a subject freshly, without
preconceptions or traditional filters an inheritance'of the Barbizon painters
*Another facet of the new, industrialized Paris that drew the Impressionists' attention was the inhabitants' leisure activities-dining, dancing, café concerts, opera, ballet, etc. related to industrialization in that set working hours made people's leisure activities more scheduled
*This depicts a popular Parisian dance hall; some people crowd the tables and chatter while others dance energetically
*The atmosphere is so lively that the viewer can virtually hear tinkling glasses, music, and laughter
*Whole scene is dappled by sunlight and shade, blurring into the figures to create effects of floating and fleeting light
*Renoir's casual unposcd placement of the figures and continuity of space suggests that it is only limited accidentally by the frame, positioning the viewer as a participant rather than an observer
*Whereas classical art sought to express universal and timeless qualities,
Impressionists attempted to depict the opposite: the incidental or momentary
*Renoir said: "For me a picture should be a pleasant thing, joyful and pretty- yes pretty! There are quite enough unpleasant things in life without the need for us to manufacture more."
*In the late 1860's and early 1870's, Monet and his friend Renoir worked closely together to develop Impressionism into a fully mature style ideally suited to painting outdoors
*Renoir has glamorized its working-class
clientele by replacing it with his young artist
friends and their models
*The innocence of their flirtation is underscored
by the children in the lower left
*In this scene, our role is that of a casual stroller who takes in this slice of life while passing by
*Manet never exhibited with the Impressionists, but in the 187o's he followed their lead by lightening his palette, loosening his brushwork, and confronting modern life in a more direct manner than he had in Le Dejetmer and Olympian- both of which maintained a
connection with the art of the past
*But complicating his apparent acceptance of Impressionist ideals was his countering of
the optimistic Impressionist viewpoint with his more pessimistic (Realist) one
*This last major painting of his contrasts the happy aura of works such as Moulin de la
Galetre-in the center stands one of the barmaids; this theater offered circus, musical, and vaudeville acts, and reflected in the mirror is some of the elegant crowd entertained by a
trapeze act
*On the marble bar top is a still life of tangerines, liquor bottles, and flowers all associated with the pleasures for which the Folies-Bergere was famous
*The barmaid's wide hips, strong neck, and closely combed golden hair are echoed in the
champagne bottles; however, her demeanor refutes these positive associations
*Manet puts the viewer directly in front of her, in the position of her customer, but she
neither smiles nor gives the slightest hint of recognition (expected by male clients and
employer)
*Instead she appears self-absorbed and slightly depressed, perfunctory in the shallow
interactions that urban life enables
*Manet has curiously shifted the reflection to the right as if the mirror were at an angle
But the reflection does not match! In it, she leans toward her customer, with the
psychological and physical distance between them gone-> much debated; possibly
showing that the longing for intimacy and happiness is mirage-like, while the disappointing reality of ordinary existence confronts the viewer
*The spatial contradictions reveal
Manet's insistence on calling attention to
the pictorial surface of the painting
*His radical break with tradition and
redefinition of the picture surface
explains why many scholars position Manet as the first modern artist
*Modern art unfolded in a gradual and
even logical way, discarding one rule after another in succeeding decades
*Modernism was not revolutionary but
rather evolutionary
*Degas became a superb master of line, so much so that his works differ significantly from
those of Monet and Renoir
*He specialized in studies of figures in rapid and informal action, recording the quick
impression of arrested motion, and he employed lines to convey the sense of movement
*In this painting of a woman crouched in a wash tub, he outlined the major objects the
woman, tub, and pitchers - and covered all surfaces with linear hatch marks
*He achieved this leaner quality with pastels, his favorite medium, by drawing directly on the
paper; although the colors can be smudged, they retain their fresh, bright autonomy
*Also shows modernist exploration of the picture surface: although the woman appears to be 3D, the tabletop or shelf on the right is severely tilted, so much so that it seems to parallel the picture plane; the limited foreshortening of the pitchers and their shared edge creates a visual complexity for the viewer
*Two important new influences: his knowledge of Japanese prints, which he collected, is
evident in the angular viewpoint; and the seemingly arbitrary cropping shows the influence of photography, which he also practiced
*Degas was also a photographer
*What set him apart were his bold calculations of composition
*The Tub is severe, almost geometric in design
*The outlined tub and crouching woman form a circle within a square
*The curve of the small pitcher matches the handle of the other one
*Here the tension between 2D and 3D comes to a breaking point!
*Degas did not paint en plein air but
in the studio from working drawings, a traditional academic procedure - firm drawing, careful composition, and indoor scenes/lighting set him apart from the spontaneous plain air painters
*Van Gogh explored how colors and distorted forms could express his emotions as he confronted nature
*Son of a Dutch Protestant pastor, he felt he had a religious calling and did missionary work in the coal-mining area of Belgium
*Repeated professional and personal failures brought him close to despair; he was a tormented individual who suffered from epileptic seizures
*Only in painting did he reveal his feelings, "the power to create"; he wrote to his brother Theo that "Instead of trying to reproduce exactly what I have before my eyes, I use color more arbitrarily so as to express myself more forcibly" and his color "is not from the point of view of the delusive realist but suggests some emotion of an ardent temperament"
*The thickness, shape, and direction of his brushstrokes created a tactile counterpart to his intense color schemes; used bold, slapdash techniques such as brushstrokes at right angles and dots or lines squeezed onto the canvas from his paint tube to enhance colors
*This interior scene is from Arles in southern France; the painting is meant to convey "a place where one can ruin oneself, go mad, or commit a crime."- there are four Citron-yellow lamps with a glow of orange and green. Everywhere there is a clash and contrast of the most disparate reds and greens in the figures of little
sleeping hooligans, in the empty, dreary room, in violet and blue. The blood-red and yellow-green of the billiard table, for instance, contrast with the soft, tender Louis XV green of the counter, on which there is a pink nosegay. The white coat of the landlord, awake in a corner of that furnace, turns Citron-yellow, or pale luminous green.
*Van Gogh believed that Impressionism did not provide artists with enough freedom to express their emotions
*He is the first great Dutch painter since the 17th century!
*Did not become an artist until 1880 and died only 10 years later after a short career
*He was very dissatisfied with the values of industrial society and had a strong sense of mission
*He experimented briefly with Impressionism for less than 2 years
*In 1886, he went to Paris where his brother Theo owned an art gallery; Theo introduced him to Degas, Seurat, and others
*He was a socialist who believed that modern life alienated people from each other and themselves; paintings tried to
create empathy between artist and viewer
*QUOTE ON THIS PAINTING: "I have tried to express the terrible passions of humanity by means of red and green.
The room is blood red and dark yellow with a green billiard table in the middle (so steeply inclined it could slide away)
*This is an example of Van Gogh's "expressionist" style, painted a year before his death
*At the time he was living in an asylum in Saint-Reny where he had committed himself
*Instead of painting the sky in a realistic manner, he communicated the vastness of the sky with whirling and exploding galaxies of stars and the huddling humanity and earth beneath it
*The church in the center of the village below may be an attempt to express or reconcile his
feelings about religion
*Although the scene suggests a personal vision, it is modeled on the view from his window in the asylum; the dark, deep blue and turbulent brushstrokes suggest a pervasive depression
*He wrote to Theo: "Just as we take a train to get to Rouen, we take death to reach a star."
*The cypress tree is a traditional symbol of both death and eternal life, which rises to link the
terrestrial and celestial realms
*The brightest star in the sky is actually the planet Venus, which represents love
*Van Gogh turned to landscape painting, but he saw sun-drenched Mediterranean countryside as filled with ecstatic movement, not architectural stability and permanence
*The artist's personal "handwriting" is evident-brushstrokes become graphic gestures
*COLOR, NOT FORM, determined the expressive content of his pictures
*Both earth and sky pulsate with overpowering turbulence: trees spring flame like from the
ground; hills and clouds have the same undulant motion; wheat field resembles a stormy sea
*He made brushwork more immediately expressive of feeling than anyone in Western tradition
*He came up with his own meanings for colors:
-yellow = faith, triumph, love
-cobalt = divine
~red/green = terrible and human passions
*Like Van Gogh, French painter Gauguin rejected objective representation in favor of
subjective expression-- broke with Impressionists' minutely contrasted hues, believing that color above all must be expressive
*Unlike Van Gogh, Gauguin's color areas appear flatter, often visually dissolving into
abstract patches or patterns
*Gauguin resigned from his prosperous brokerage business in 1883 to paint full time,
abandoning his wife and five children; he came to despise the business-oriented culture
*Moved to Brittany, France in 1886, and created this painting that decisively rejects
Realism and Impressionism
*He claimed he was attracted to the "natural" men and women perfectly at ease in their
unspoiled environment, ignoring the developments that had recently transformed
Brittany into a profitable market economy
*The painting shows Breton women, wearing their starched white Sunday caps and
black dresses, visualizing a sermon they have just heard at church on Jacob's encounter
with the Holy Spirit, as recounted in Genesis; they pray devoutly before the apparition
as they would before one of the frequently seen roadside crucifixions
*Gauguin departed from optical realism and composed the picture elements to focus the
viewer's attention on and intensify the message-composed of memory and imagination
*The artist twisted the perspective and allotted the space to emphasize the innocent faith
of the women, and he shrank Jacob and the angel to the size of fighting cocks, making
the women spectators (familiar since wrestling matches often followed masses)
*The painting is not unified with a horizon perspective, light and shade, or a naturalistic
use of color but instead abstracted the scene into a pattern; pure unmodulated color fills
flat planes bounded by firm lines: white caps, black dresses, red field of combat
*In contrast to the expressionistic work of Van Gogh and Gauguin, Seurat was purely intellectual, devising a disciplined and painstaking system of painting that focused on color analysis carefully organized into a new pictorial order
*He disciplined the free and fluent play of color that characterized Impressionism into
a calculated arrangement based on scientific color theory-known as pointillism or divisionism (color separated into component parts) applied in tiny dots or daubs,
causing the image to come into focus only from a distance
*The subject of the painting is recreational themes, like those of the Impressionists
*But unlike the spontaneous light and color of Impressionist works, this one is rigid and
remote-carefully composed to create a deep rectangular space
*He used repeated motifs to create flat patterns and to suggest spatial depth: the female form, the parasol, and the cylindrical figures, creating movement in depth as well as side to side
*Filled with sunshine but not broken into transient patches of color-instead the piece
is fixed in an abstract design with tightly controlled organization
*Seurat stated: "They see poetry in what I have done. No, I apply my method, and that is all there is to it." But he also shows that he recognizes the shifting social and class relationships of the time
*The setting is La Grande Jatte ("The Big Bowl"), an island in the River Seine near
one of Paris' rapidly growing industrial suburbs; the scene captures life on a Sunday
afternoon when people from various classes congregate, including the sleeveless
worker in the left foreground next to the middle class couple.
*Like Seurat, Cézanne turned from Impressionism to create a more analytical style; he declared that he wanted to "make of Impressionism something solid and durable like the art of the museums" after studying the Old Masters in the Louvre
*He had a unique way of studying nature in works such as this: his aim was not truth in
appearance but a lasting structure behind the formless and fleeting visual information the eye
absorbs; instead of employing the Impressionists' random approach when face to face with nature, he attempted to intellectually order the lines, planes, and colors that comprised nature by constantly checking his painting against the part of the actual scene (he called the "motif') he was studying at the moment
*He wanted to achieve distance, depth, structure, and solidity not by traditional perspective and Chiaroscuro but in terms of the color patterns an optical analysis of nature provides
*He studied the effect of every kind of linear direction, the capacity of planes to create the
sensation of depth, the intrinsic qualities of color, and the power of colors to modify direction and depth of lines and planes
*To create the illusion of 3D space he focused on carefully selecting colors, knowing that
cool colors recede and warm colors advance; by applying small patches of juxtaposed colors,
some advancing and some receding, he created volume and spatial depth in his works
*He often depicted objects chiefly in one hue by modulating the saturation, but other times he
used contrasting colors of like saturation to compose specific objects such as bowls or fruit
*This is one of many paintings of this mountain near his home-his focus is a lengthy analysis of colors in large lighted spaces as opposed to transitory atmospheric conditions
*includes numerous small elements such as roads, fields, houses, and the viaduct at the far
right, each seen from a slightly different viewpoint
*Optical illusion
*No artist had a greater impact on the next generation of Modernist painters
*Cezanne had little professional success until the last few years of his life when others recognized his innovative qualities
*Framing the scene at the left is an evergreen tree, which echoes the contours of the mountains-not pictured here but in another version now in London
*The mountain is depicted equally stressing background and foreground contours to make it simultaneously near and far away
Not a style at all but an intensely private world view based on literary movement of same name:

AVANT-GARDE: Each successive modernist movement challenged artistic conventions with greater intensity (from Realism to Impressionism to Post-impressionism) Now Avant-Garde ("Front guard") means any particularly new, cutting-edge cultural manifestation; in the 1880's, the avant-garde artists increasingly disengaged themselves from a public audience, creating an insular community whose members seemed to speak only to each other in their work
*The Post-Impressionists, whose work the public found incomprehensible, were the first artists labeled avant-garde (later applied to Fauves, Cubists, Dada artists, etc)

* SYMBOLISTS: In contrast to the Impressionists and Post-Impressionists who used their emotions and sensations to interpret nature, by the end of the 19th century the representation of nature became completely subjectivized, to the point that artists did not imitate nature but created free interpretations of it. Artists rejected the optical world in favor of a fantasy world; technique and ideas were individual to each artist; color, line, and shape were used as symbols of personal emotions in response to the world, to see through things to a significance and reality far deeper than what superficial appearance gave, making artists beings of extraordinary insight
PHILOSOPHY OF AESTHETICISM: Symbolists urged artists to stand against the vulgar materialism and conventional mores of industrial and middle-class society; they wished to purge literature and art of anything utilitarian, to cultivate an exquisite aesthetic sensitivity and to make the slogan "art for art's sake" a doctrine and a way of life Subjects became increasingly esoteric, exotic, mysterious, visionary, dreamlike, and fantastic-at same time Freud published Interpretation of Dreams and, began the age of psychiatry
*Edvard Munch, Norwegian painter and graphic artist, was linked in spirit to the Symbolists
*He felt deeply the pain of human life, believing that humans were powerless against the great natural forces of love and death and their associated emotions-jealousy, loneliness, fear, desire, and despair
*His goal was to describe the conditions of "modern psychic life" and believed that Realist and Impressionist techniques were inappropriate since they focused on the tangible world
*He was influenced by Gauguin and his emotionally charged paintings were a major source of inspiration for the German Expressionists in the early 20th century.
*In this painting the image is grounded in the real world: a man standing on a bridge or jetty in a discernible landscape-but it departs significantly from visual reality
*It evokes a visceral response from the viewer as the man in the foreground, Simplified almost to skeletal form, emits a primal scream
*The curves in the landscape echo the curves of the mouth and head, just as the sound echoes
*Fiery red and yellow stripes create an eerie, glowing sky
*MUNCH'S QUOTE ABOUT THIS PAINTING: "I stopped and leaned against the balustrade, almost dead with fatigue. Above the blue-black fjord hung the clouds, red as blood and tongues of fire. My friends had left me, and alone, trembling with anguish, I became aware of the vast, infinite cry of nature."
*The work was originally titled Despair
*The overwhelming anxiety that sought release
in this scream was primarily a fear of death,
suggested by skeleton, but also a fear of open spaces
*The SD art of sculpture was not readily adaptable to capturing the optical sensations many painters favored in the 19th century; its very nature (tangible, solid) suggests permanence, suggesting supposedly timeless ideals rather than transitory nature
*But sculptors of this period continued to pursue the ideals of Realism and Impressionism
*Despite many social changes that had transformed European life, the sculptor's profession remained resolutely a male pursuit, due in part to the physical demands and working conditions of the medium; also the perception of sculpture as manual labor was widespread, and most sculptors came from the
working class
*French artist Auguste Rodin conceived and executed his sculptures with the Realist sensibility
*Like Muybridge and Eakins, he was fascinated by the human body in motion
*Also he studied the Impressionists, and although he was not concerned with color he did have a strong interest in the effect of light on the 3D surface
*He joined his knowledge of anatomy and movement with special attention to the body's exterior, saying, "The sculptor must learn to reproduce the surface, which means all that vibrates on the surface, soul, love, passion, life... Sculpture is thus the art of hollows and mounds, not of smoothness or even polished planes."
*Primarily modeled clay rather than carving wood or stone; he often had a model move around in front of him in his studio while he studied the effects of changing light by modeling sketches with coils of clay
*This sculpture captures a body in motion, headless and armless; the body is caught in mid-stride when the weight is transferred across the pelvis from the back leg to the front
*Rodin paid such careful attention to details of muscle, bone, and tendon that it has forceful reality
*After an 1875 trip to Italy to see the works of Michelangelo and Donatello, he developed style of vigorously modeled figures in unconventional poses
*Rodin failed 3 times to gain entrance to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and spent his 1st 20 years of career as assistant to other sculptors and decorators
*His sculptural style was scorned by the critics and admired by the general public
*Since the 18th century, bridges had been built of cast iron (Fig. 28-10), which permitted engineering advancements in the construction of larger, stronger, and more fire-resistant structures; steel, available after 1860, allowed architects to enclose ever-larger Spaces, such as those found in railroad stations and exposition halls
*The Realist impulse encouraged an architecture that honestly expressed a building's purpose rather than elaborately disguising a building's function
*Eiffel's work constituted an important contribution to the development of the 20th century skyscraper
*Eiffel trained in Paris before a career designing exhibition halls, bridges, and the interior armature for France's gift to the US, the Statue of Liberty
*He designed this best-known work for a great exhibition in Paris in 1889
*It was originally seen as a symbol of modern Paris and still symbolizes 19th century civilization
*Its height of 984 feet made it for sometime the world's highest structure, surpassing even the
pyramids and Gothic cathedrals
*It rests on 4 giant supports joined by gracefully arching open-framed skirts that balance the heavy horizontal girders; visitors can take two elevators to the top or the internal staircase
*its airiness makes it the "terrestrial sister of the aeroplane"; to a previously unknown extent, its outer and inner space are interpenetrating, providing a glimpse into 4-D experience; became a hallmark of 20th century art and architecture
*Detractors saw it as an ugly, overblown work of engineering: 'Tower of Babel'
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