Anatomy chapter 3

How many distinct cell types does the body have
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What are the three types of epithelial membranes1. mucous membranes 2. serous membranes 3. cutaneous membraneWhat are mucous membranes (mucosa)Membranes that line body cavities and hollow passageways that open to the environment (digestive tract). The underlying connective tissue of mucosal membranes is referred to as the lamina propria.What are serous membranes (serosa)Membranes that line cavities that don't open to the exterior, they cover organs within the: 1. Pleura 2. Pericardium 3. PeritoneumWhat are cutaneous membranesMembranes that cover the skin (also called the integumentary system) (skin)What are connective tissue membranes comprised ofSolely connective tissueWhere can connective tissue membranes be foundEncapsulating organs (kidneys), and lining moveable jointsWhere are the synovial membranesLining the cavities or move able jointsWhat are epithelial tissuesLarge sheets of cells covering the surfaces of the body exposed to the exterior and lining the "outside" of organs (airways, gi tract)What are some structural and functional features of epithelial tissues (7)1. They provide protection from the environment/ serve as a physical boundary 2. Highly cellular, no extracellular material (just cells packed together) 3. The cells are connected by a number of cellular junctions 4. The cells have directionality or polarity, the superior surface is called the apical surface and the inferior surface is called the basal surface, which is attached to the basement membrane, which is attached to the underlying connective tissue 5. A vascular 6. They are involved in absorption and secretion (of nutrients and mucus) 7. They are involved in sensory things (pressure, pain, temp)What is a tight junctionThey "stitch" cells together and create an impermeable barrier between cellsWhat is a gap junctionPassageways between cells, made up of proteins like connexins . Connexons (the structure made of connexins) allow the rapid movement of material, like charged ions (for ex these help the heart contract in unison)What are anchoring junctionsThey help stabilize epithelial tissuesWhat is a desmosomeA type of junction between cells in which protein fibers link cells together and provide strength needed in cells such as skin and heart muscles. Prevent cells from getting ripped apartWhat is a hemidesmosomeA type of anchoring junction that binds the basal lamina/ basement membrane to the underlying epithelial tissueWhat are adherensThese bind cells together on the lateral surface and they are involved in how epithelial tissues have overall structural shape and how they fold, especially in the small intestinesWhat are epithelial tissues classified bynumber of layers and shape of cellsWhat does simple mean in terms of epithelial tissuemeaning a single layer of cellsWhat does stratified mean in terms of epithelial tissueconsist of multiple cell layersWhat does pseudostratified mean in terms of epithelial tissueSometimes cells can appear to be stacked on top of each other but are notWhat does squamous mean in terms of epithelial tissueThe cells appear flattenedWhat does cuboidal mean in terms of epithelial tissueThe cells have a cube or square shapeWhat does columnar mean in terms of epithelial tissueThe cells are elongated or shaped like a column, and they usually also have elongated or oval shaped nucleiWhat are the different cell shapes for epithelial tissue1. Squamous 2. Cuboidal 3. ColumnarDescribe what simple squamous epithelium means/ what it would look IikeIt means there is one layer of flattened epithelial (skin) cellsWhat is one benefit of simple squamous epithelium, therefore where can you find itIt allows for ease of movement of substances because it is so thin- found in the alveoli for gas exchange, kidney tubules, capillaries (endothelium) which allow for air to move across, and serous membranes (mesothelium)Describe what simple cuboidal epithelium would look likeOne layer of cube or square shaped cells with large round nucleiWhat are simple cuboidal epithelium good for, so therefore where are they foundThey are good for secretion and absorption so you can find them in kidney tubules and gland ducts (thyroid gland)Describe what simple columnar epithelium would look likeOne layer of elongated cells with oval nucleiWhat are simple columnar epithelium good for, so therefore where would they be foundGood for secretion and absorption, found in the digestive system, female reproductive system (uterine tubes)Can simple columnar epithelium be ciliated?Yeswhere would you find ciliated simple columnar epitheliumFound in the respiratory tract and uterine tubesWhat would pseudostratified columnar epithelium look likeElongated irregularly shaped cells that all touch the basal lamina and the nuclei are at different levelsWhat are goblet cellscells that secrete and absorb mucus. Found in pseudostratified columnar epithelium or cilliated. In the respiratory tract. Mucus Helps trap particular matter in the air. The cilia move the mucus along and all the trapped particles and cleanse air before it reaches your lungs.What would stratified squamous epithelium look likeThe apical cells (top layer of cells), are squamous (appear flattened), and the basal cells (bottom layers) are cuboidal or columnar. Multiple layersWhere can you find stratified squamous epithelium and what is it good forProtection against abrasion and desiccation (water loss) since the cells are thick. It's found in the skin (keratinized), oral cavity and esophagus (non keratinized)What would stratified cuboidal epithelium look likeMultiple layers, The apical cells are cuboidal, although this is rare in epithelial tissue.What is stratified cuboidal epithelium good for and where would you find itIt is good for secretion and protection ( it's not too thick but still provides protection because it's at least 2 cell layers thick) and can be found in sweat, salivary, and mammary glandsWhat would stratified columnar epithelium look likeThere would be multiple layers of elongated cells. The apical cells would be columnar, although this is a rare kind of epithelial tissue.What is stratified columnar epithelium good for and where would you find itIt is good for secretion and protection, you'd find it in the ducts of gland (salivary, mammary), anus, male reproductive tract, conjunctiva, pharynxWhat does transitional epithelium look likeThe apical cells are variable, it can appear cuboidal or squamous depending on the stretch. Many layers. Nuclei of different shapes as well.Where can you find transitional epitheliumUrinary bladder, ureters, urethra (places that stretch and fill)What is a glandOne or more cells that secrete substances (mucus, sweat)What are endocrine glands?Ductless glands that release secretions directly into surrounding tissues and fluids. Usually secrete hormones into blood or interstitial fluidWhat are exocrine glandsGlands that release secretions through ducts to the epithelial surface (mucus, sweat, saliva, gi tract secretions)What are the different types of exocrine glands1. Unicellular (goblet cells) 2. Multicellular- release contents via ducts. Simple glands have a single duct. Compound glands have branched ductsWhat is merocrine secretion?The most common mode of secretion, happens via exocytosis (vesicles), goblet cells and sweat glandsWhat is apocrine secretionThe apical portion of the cell, which contains secretory vesicles, pinches off with the apocrine glandsWhat is holocrine secretionThe entire cell is shed, happens in sebaceous glands associated with where we have hair. The entire oil gland will come up and out.What are the three modes of secretionmerocrine, apocrine, holocrineWhat kinds of secretions come from serous glandsWatery, enzyme rich secretions (salivary)What kinds of secretions come from mucous glandsWatery- viscous secretions, rich in mucin (salivary, goblet cells)Name structural characteristics of connective tissues1. The cells are in a matrix of ground substance and protein fibers 2. Ground substance can be fluid (plasma) or solid (bone)What are the functions of connective tissues1. They support and connect tissues and organs (sheaths, tendons) 2. Protection (bones protect the body) 3. Transports materials (blood) 4. Energy storage (adipose connective tissue)What are 3 categories of CT based on characteristics of ground substance and fibers in the matrix1. Connective tissue proper Loose and dense CT 2. Supportive connective tissue Cartilage and bone 3. Fluid CT Blood and lymphWhat are some cell types of connective tissue proper1. Fibrocytes and fibroblasts 2. Adipocytes (fat storage) 3. Mesenchymal cells (involved in tissue repair) 4. Macrophage and mast cells (immune system cells WBC) Any CT can have all or someWhat are the fiber types of connective tissue proper1. Collagen fibers 2.. Elastic fibers (elastin) give tissues elasticity 3. Reticular fibers- provide framework to tissue The amount in a CT depends on the type CTWhat are some traits of loose connective tissue- Adipose CTThere are abundant adipocytes, with little matrix. They are Important for energy storage, cushioning, insulation, found in the hypodermis, deep to the dermisWhat are some traits of areolar connective tissue- loose CT1. Contains all CT cells and fibers Acts as filler around blood vessels, lymph nodes, abdominal organs to protect and insulate them, deep to the epithelia 2. Found in orbits of eyes, found everywhereWhat are some traits of loose connective tissue- reticular CTThere are abundant amounts of reticular fibers to form a framework to help hold and bind certain cells together of organs like the spleen, liver, or lymphatic systemWhat are some characteristics of dense connective tissue- dense regular ctThere are abundant uniform collagen fibers- tensile strength resist stretching, found in tendons and ligamentsWhat are some characteristics of dense irregular connective tissueThere are abundant collagen fibers in multiple directions, they resist stress in many directions. Found in the dermis of the integumentWhat are some characteristics of supportive connective tissue1. They allow the body to maintain posture and protect internal organs 2. There are two major forms- cartilage and bone 3. Cartilage has semi solid matrix. It has chondrocytes in the pits of bones called lacunae. External to the cartilage, the joints have a tough tissue that covers cartilage called the perichondrium 4. Cartilage is a vascularWhat are some characteristics of hyaline cartilage connective tissue1. Most common kind of ct 2. Has clear matrix 3. Strong and flexible 4. Protects and cushions 5. Found at the ends of long bones, rib cage, trachea, noseWhat are some characteristics of fibrocartilage connective tissue1. There is an abundant amount of collagen fibers in the matrix which resist stress or compression and absorb shock 2. Found in the knee, jaw joint, intervertebral discsWhat are some characteristics of elastic cartilage connective tissueThere are abundant elastic fibers which give it an elastic rubbery texture. This is found in the ears and epiglottisDescribe some characteristic of supportive connective tissues, specifically bonesBones have a solid matrix. It has a form of calcium phosphate storage, referred to as hydroxyapatite, and collagen fibers so your bones don't become too brittle. There are osteocytes in the lacunae. Bones are vascular to provide nutrients to the osteocytes and cells involved in cell repair.Describe some characteristics of fluid connective tissue1 The cells are found within a liquid extracellular matrix 2 It functions to transport material 3 The first type of fluid connective tissue is blood which includes red blood cells white blood cells and plasma. This transports respiratory gases and nutrients 4 The second type of fluid connective tissue is lymph which has a liquid matrix and white blood cells. This transports interstitial fluid and lipidsDescribe the organization of connective tissue1. Membranes (such as the cutaneous membrane-skin) have underlying CT 2. Deep to the skin, are other ct structures or membranes. The layers of ct work to bind superficial structures to deeper structures or even internal structure 3. Superficial fascia (hypodermis), is deep to the integument and connects the integument to deeper structures such as the areolar and adipose ct 4. The deep fascia are layers of dense connective tissue that binds and anchors and compartmentalizes muscles, bones and nerves 5. The subserous fascia is the deepest, binds to internal serous membranes that are found deep to the muscles and ribcage. Made primarily of areolar ct