bsc108 - exam 1

What is biology?
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Terms in this set (162)
What are some common themes in biology? 1. the scope of life & ____ 2. organisms exchange ___ & energy within ecosystems 3. ___ are an organism's basic unit 4. the continuity of life is based on information in ___ 5. ___ is the hallmark of life & the diverse forms of life fit their functions 6. ___emergent properties, matter, cells, DNA, diversity, evolutionWhat is the scientific method? & the components of it?a method of research, observation, hypothesis, experiment, results, conclusiona tentative explanation for an observationhypothesisWhat are the components of a good hypothesis?should be specific; usually "if, then" statements; testableif the hypothesis is correct or notpredictionwhen you interact with your experiment, you are using your senses to observeobservationa particular sample that is treated the same as all the rest of the samples except that is not exposed to manipulated variablescontrolA widely accepted explanatory idea that is broader in scope than a hypothesis, generates new hypotheses, & is supported by a large body of evidencetheoryThe limits of science: 1. science is not the only way to ___ nature 2. science cannot ___ every question posed by man 3. religion & art are other ___ used to understand the world we live in 4. a good education includes a broad exposure to ___ ways of looking at the worldunderstand, address, methods, diverseWhat are the 4 characteristics for evaluating science:1. Is it based on good observations? 2. Who are the scientists and for whom do the work? 3. Has it been reproduced? 4. Is is recent?The smallest unit of matter that retains the properties of an element.atomWhat is an atom composed of?protons, neutrons, electronspositively charged particlesprotonsnegatively charged particleselectronsneutral particles which mean that they have no chargeneutronsan atom or molecule with a net electric charge due to the loss or gain of one or more electronsion___ & ___ are found in the nucleus, but ___ orbit the nucleusprotons, neutrons, electronsWhat is the difference between an ion and isotope? an ___ has a different number of electrons & an ___ has a different number of neutrons but same atomic numberion, isotopeWhat is the association between isotopes and fossils?some isotopes are radioactive, so geologists can determine the ages of rocks & fossils by analyzing the isotopes found in them___ help PET scans --> early Alzheimer's detectionradioactive isotopesthe capacity to do work; make a change in matterenergyatoms that bear no net electrical charge because their negative & positive charges are exactly balancesneutral atoman element that is essential for the survival of an organism but is needed in only minute quantitiestrace element___ deficiency causes goitersiodinethe nucleus decays, giving off particles & energyradioactive isotopeHow many electrons are found in the first energy shell? Second? Third? First: ___ Second: ___ Third: ___2, 8, 18the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom; which determines the chemical properties of an element & its place in the periodic tableatomic numberthe mass of an atom express in atomic mass unitsatomic massatomic mass =protons + neutronsatomic number =number of protonsWhat are the different types of chemical bonds?ionic, covalent, hydrogenan attraction between two ions with opposite electrical charges the electrical attraction of the opposite charges holds the ions together --complete transfer of some electrons from one atom to anotherionic bondforms when two atoms share one or more pairs of electronscovalent bondwhen a negative end of one water molecule is attracted to the positive end of another water moleculehydrogen bondweakest bondhydrogen bondstrongest bondcovalentWhy is the chemistry of life water chemistry?life on earth began in water & has evolved, however organisms still rely on water to live; H2O = universal solventborrowing electrons = which bondionic bondin a hydrogen bond, electrons of hydrogen spend more time near the ___ atomsoxygenthe atoms are bound together by the attraction between oppositely-charged ionsionic bondthe atoms are bound by shared electronscovalent bondIn a chemical reaction what is beginning material known as?reactantsIn a chemical reaction what is the ending material referred to as?productsWhy can water absorb a lot of heat?High heat of vaporization, the breaking of hydrogen bondsice is ___ dense than waterlesswhen water freezes, it ___ & floats due to the formation of a crystalline structureexpandsWhat is the ecological importance of ice floating?floating ice forms an insulating "blanket" over the liquid water, allowing life to persist under the frozen surfacea liquid that is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances (salt water)solutionthe dissolving agent of a solution (water in salt water)solventthe substance that is dissolved (salt in salt water)solutea measure of the activity of the (solvated) hydrogen ion scale that measures how acidic or basic a substance is ranging from 0-14pHchemical substance (typically, a corrosive or sour-tasting liquid) that neutralizes alkalis, dissolves some metals, & turns litmus redacidA substance that increased the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution.acidA substance that decreases the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution.basea molecule that binds hydrogen ion s or a molecule that donates electronsbaseExamples of bases and acidsBase- oven cleaner, bleach, ammonia, blood Acid- urine, black coffee, battery acidA chemical process in which macromolecules are broken down by the chemical addition of water molecules to the bonds linking their monomers; an essential part of digestion.hydrolysis reactionA chemical process in which a polymer forms when monomers are linked by the removal of water molecules. One molecule of water is removed for each pair of monomers linked. The atoms in the water molecule are provided by the two monomers involved in the reaction.dehydration reactionBuilding a polymer chain - Removes equivalent of a water molecule to link molecular units - Requires energy - Builds macromolecules from smaller subunitsdehydration synthesisBreaking a polymer chain - Adds the equivalent of a water molecule to break apart macromolecules - Releases energyhydrolysis reactionWhat are the 4 basic macromolecules?carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids3 types of carbohydratesmonosaccharides (1 sugar), disaccharides (2 sugars), polysaccharides (3 or more sugars)___ are sugars; ___ are polysaccharidesmonomers, polymersstructure of carbohydratesC, H, O in 1:2:1 ratioprovide structural support to plants, store energycarbohydratesstores energy in plantsstarchstores energy in animalsglycogen1 sugar also called simple sugars; main sugar of the cellmonosaccharidesmonosaccharides examples: ___ - found in sports drinks ___ - found in an apple ___ - found in cherries ___ - found in DNA ___ - found in RNAglucose, fructose, galactose, deoxyribose, ribosetwo simple sugars; two monosaccharides linked together by dehydration synthesisdisaccharidesdisaccharide examples: ___ - glucose + fructose (table sugar) ___ - glucose + glucose (seedling sugar) ___ - glucose + galactose (milk sugar)sucrose, maltose, lactosethousands of monosaccharides joined in chains and branches; also called complex carbspolysaccharidespolysaccharide examples: ___ - made in plants; stores energy (ex: potato) ___ - made in animals; stores energy (ex: muscle) ___ - made in plants; structural support (ex: plant stalks & celery)starch, glycogen, cellulose3 types of lipidstriglycerides, phospholipids, steroidsstructure: composed of two types of molecules: glycerol & fatty acidstriglycerides (fat)functions: - Energy storage - higher amount of energy/gram in fats than in carbohydrates - animals, seeds - Insulation of warm-blooded animals - Cushion internal organstriglycerides (fat)no double bonds; solid at room temperature; comes from animals (LIMIT THESE IN YOUR DIET!)saturated fatscontain 1 or more double bonds; liquid at room temperature; comes from plants INCLUDE PLANT OILS and OMEGA-e FATS IN YOUR DIET! AVOID TRANS-FATS IN YOUR DIET!)unsaturated fatsstructure: contain glycerol, 2 fatty acids, and a phosphate (PO4 )phospholipids (cell membranes)function: ___ bilayers form structure of most biological membranesphospholipidstructure: have three 6-sided carbon rings and one 5-sided carbon ringsteroids (hormones)functions: stabilize cell membranes - cholesterol chemical messengers - sex hormones, (testosterone, estradiol)steroidsall proteins are constructed from a common set of ___20 amino acidsstructure: - a central carbon atom bonded to four covalent partners in which three of those attachment groups are common to all amino acids - the side group (or R group) is the only thing that is different in all 20 amino acidsproteinsmonomers of proteinsamino acidspolymers of proteinspolypeptides___ is due to a mutation that leads to a different amino acid in position 6 of the hemoglobin polypeptidesickle cell anemiaunfavorable temperature and pH changes can cause ___ of a protein, in which it unravels and loses its shape.denaturationpolymers of nucleotidesnucleic acideach nucleotide has 3 parts:5-carbon sugar, phosphate group, nitrogenous basefunction: 1. provide the directions for building proteins 2. include DNA and RNA 3. are the genetic material that organisms inherit from their parentsnucleic acidDNA structure: 2 strands of DNA joined together; Bases (A,T,C,G) form along one DNA strand and are hydrogen-bonded to basesdouble helixRNA uses the sugar ribose & the base ___ instead of thymine (T).uracil (U)What is high fructose corn syrup?fructose & glucosecontains carbon and at least one hydrogen atom a molecule that is normally found in or produced by living streamsorganic moleculebuilding blocks of proteinsamino acidsbuilding blocks of lipidsfatty acids, glycerolbuilding blocks of nucleic acidsnucleotidesbuilding blocks of polysaccharidesmonosaccharidesalso known as starches; made up of 3 or more linked sugarscomplex carbohydratesalso known as simple sugars; made up of 1 or 2 sugarssimple carbohydrates___ is produced in the liver and muscle cells of animalsglycogen___ is found in plants and functions as a form of stored energy for plants; they are polysaccharidesstarchsaturated or unsaturated lipid: no double bonds; solid; animalssaturatedsaturated or unsaturated lipid: contain 1 or more double bonds; liquid; plantsunsaturateda lipid containing a phosphate group in its moleculephospholipidThe covalent linkage between two amino acid units in a polypeptide, formed by a dehydration reaction between two amino acids.peptide bondthe primary linkage of all protein structures; the chemical bond between the carboxyl groups & amino groups that unites a peptidepeptide bondWhat factor(s) can effect protein folding?influenced by several external factors including electric & magnetic fields, temperature, pH, chemicals, space limitation & molecular crowding.What are the roles proteins in the cell?Proteins are responsible for nearly every task of cellular life, including cell shape & inner organization, product manufacture and waste cleanup, and routine maintenance.Who won the Nobel prize for the Nature paper describing the double Helix?James Watson, Francis Crick & Maurice WilkinsWhat are the differences between RNA and DNA? There are two differences that distinguish DNA from RNA: (a) RNA contains the sugar ___, while DNA contains the slightly different sugar ___ (a type of ribose that lacks one oxygen atom), and (b) RNA has the nucleobase ___ while DNA contains thymine.ribose, deoxyribose, uracilWhat are the bases in DNA?Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, CytosineWhat are the bases in RNA?Adenine, Uracil, Guanine, CytosineHow do the bases pair in a DNA strand? In an RNA strand?DNA: AT; GC RNA: AU; GCthe smallest unit that can live on its own and that makes up all living organisms and the tissues of the body.cellKnow the 3 types of microscopes and the things each can see1. Light microscopes - whole cell 2. Scanning electron microscope - surface features 3. Transmission electron microscope --- internal structureEverything within a eukaryotic cell inside the plasma membrane and outside the nucleus; consists of a semifluid medium (cytosol) and organelles; can also refer to the interior of a prokaryotic cell.cytoplasmWhat is the plasma membrane composed of?lipids, proteinsWhat is the role of proteins in a cell membrane?helps cells to communicate, maintain their shape, carry out changes triggered by chemical messengers, and transport and share material.Why is the plasma membrane called a bilayer?because it is made up of 2 layers of lipidsWhat are the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells? Prokaryotes are always ___, while eukaryotes are often ___ organisms. Prokaryotic cells are much ___ than eukaryotic cells, have no nucleus, and lack ___.unicellular, multi-celled, smaller, organellesWhat are the characteristics of prokaryotic organisms? Prokaryotic cells are much ___ than eukaryotic cells, have no ___, and lack organelles.smaller, nucleusA small structure in a cell that is surrounded by a membrane and has a specific function.organellesorganelle: stores genetic infonucleusorganelle: makes ribosomesnucleolusorganelle: contains the contents of the cellcytoplasmorganelle: structure, support and transportcytoskeletonorganelle: makes proteinribosomesorganelle: makes proteins for the endomembrane systemrough erorganelle: detoxifies the cell and makes lipidssmooth erorganelle: sorts and ships proteinsgolgi apparatusorganelle: makes energymitochondriaorganelle: removes unwanted material and wastelysosomeorganelle: regulate biochemical pathways that involves oxidationperoxisomeorganelle: store water and nutrientsvacuolesorganelle: transports materials around the cellvesiclesorganelle: a thin flexible barrier that separates the cell from its environmentcell membraneorganelle: right barrier that protects the cellcell wallorganelle: stores water and regulates turgor pressurelarge central vacuoleorganelle: makes food using the process of photosynthesischloroplastWhere is RNA made?nucleusWhere are proteins made?ribosomesWhat organelles make up the Endomembrane system?endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus, lysosomes.Which organelles contain DNA?nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts.Why do these organelles have their own DNA?it encodes some of their proteinsHow do cells move?cilia & flagella___ move in a whip like motionflagella___ move in a coordinated back-&-forth motionciliaenlargement of the thyroid gland caused by iodine deficiencygroitercancer causing agent ex. cadmiumcarcinogenseveral serious inherited disorders are the result of malfunctioning lysosomes ex: ___ - lipids build up in the braintay-sachs