Chapter 10: Evolution
Terms in this set (64)
the difference in the physical traits among individuals in a group of organisms
feature that allows an organism to better survive in its environment
What did Darwin conclude?
That daily geologic processes can lead to bigger changes over a longer period of time
What are the three things that convinced Darwin of evolution?
Variation of similar species among islands, fossil evidence, and geologic events
process by which humans change a species by breeding it for certain traits
What must be true in order for natural or artificial selection to occur?
the trait is heritable
the ability of a trait to be passed down from one generation to the next
What acts as the selecting agent in artificial selection?
What acts as the selecting agent in natural selection?
mechanism by which individuals that have inherited beneficial adaptations produce more offspring than do other individuals
proposed that resources such as food, water, and shelter were natural limits to population growth; Darwin thought a similar struggle existed in nature
all of the individuals of a species that live in an area
When was the origin of species published?
What are the four principles of Natural Selection?
Variation, Overproduction, Adaptation, and descent with modification
heritable differences among individuals
many offspring raises results in competition for resources
Why is adaptation important?
individual will live longer and reproduce more than others without the adaptation
descent with modification
survivors will pass trait to next generation if the trait is beneficial
measure of ability to survive and produce more offspring relative to other members of the population in a given enviroment
How are new alleles formed?
Why might a beneficial trait be turned not beneficial?
the enviroment may change
change over time; process which modern organisms descended from ancient organisms
what are the two types of evolution?
macroevolution and microevolution
descendants from common ancestor
change of allele number between generations
developed a classification system for plants and animals
proposed that species shared ancestors rather than arising separately
proposed that organisms evolve through competition
presented evolution as occurring due to environmental change
naturalist; visited the Galapagos islands; wrote origin of species; observed adaptation and variation
Where does natural selection occur?
in populations; not individuals
Is Natural Selection macro or micro?
What are the five things that are evidence of evolution?
fossil record, geographic distribution of living species, shared anatomical structures, embryological similarities, and biochemical similarities
preserved remains of ancient organisms
Where were the fossils that were more primitive found?
in the bottom, or older, layers
What is proof of evolution/descent of modification?
first to ID fossils as remains of ancient plants and animals
What are the two types of fossil dating?
Relative and absolute dating
how the age of fossils are determined
approximate age of fossils
exact age of fossils
Geographic Distribution of Living Species
same species of animals living in different areas, evolved based on their surroundings
study of organisms around the world
What are the three types of anatomical structures?
homologous structures, analogous structures, and vestigial structures
similar bone structure; different in look and function; come from a common ancestor (EX. human hand, bat wing, and mole foot are homologous structures)
different in bone structure; same in function to another organism's body part; no common ancestor (EX. bat wings and fly wings)
remnants (left overs) of an organ or structure that functioned in an earlier ancestor (EX. hip and leg bones in modern whales, ostrich wings, appendix, and snake pelvis bones)
early embryo stages of all vertebrates is very similar; embryonic cells develop in the same order and in similar patterns in all vertebrates; common ancestor
How does biochemical similarities show that organisms come from a common ancestor?
the closer the organisms' amino acid sequences, the more likely they are related
study of early development
Cladogram/ phylogentic trees
evolutionary tree that proposes how species may be related to each other through common ancestors
intersection of 2 branches
group that shares traits from a common ancestor
study of fossils or extinct organisms
Why is the fossil record incomplete?
most living things do not form into fossils after they die and fossils have not been looked for in many areas of the world
forms between species; shows the change in forms over time
Why do sequences of nucleotides in a gene change over time?
parts of DNA that has no use
What does it mean if two organisms' psuedogenes are similar?
it means they are related
What do similar psuedogenes trace back to?
what do similar functional genes trace back to?
control the development of specific structures
cells from different species that have same protiens most likely come from a common ancestor
What is the purpose of common descent?
helps show where organisms came form and supports evolution