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73 terms

Chapter 5 Unlocking Medical Terminology

Chapter 5
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arthralgia
pain in a joint
ataxia
without reaction to a stimulus
atrophy
without development
bradykinesia
abnormally slow movement
dyskinesia
difficulty in movement
dystrophy
abnormal development
hypertrophy
excessive development
muscle pain
myalgia
tenodynia
tendon pain
achondroplasia
abnormally slow growth of long bones resulting in unusually short, stocky limbs
ankylosis
abnormal condition of joint stiffness
arthritis
inflammation and degeneration of a joint
arthrochondritis
inflammation of cartilages within joints
bunion
abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the big toe
bursitis
inflammation of a bursa
bursolith
a calcium deposit within a bursa
carpal tunnel syndrome
repetitive stress injury to wrist
carpoptosis
drooping of the wrist
chondromalacia
deterioration or softening of cartilage
cramps
prolonged, involuntary muscular contractions
cranioschisis
a congenital fissure of the skull
diskitis
inflammation of an intervertebral disk
Duchenne's muscular dystrophy
a congenital condition resulting in progressive muscular weakness and deterioration; abbreviated DMD
epicondylitis
inflammation of the cartilages of the elbow
fracture
a break in a bone
gout
abnormal deposition of uric acid crystals in the joints causing localized pain (usually in the big toe joints)
herniated disk
a rupture of an intervertebral disk, resulting in the protrusion of tissue against spinal nerves, which generates pain
kyphosis
a deformity of the spine characterized by the presence of a hump; also called hunchback
lateral epicondylitis
inflammation of the lateral tendon of the elbow; also called tennis elbow
lordosis
a deformity of the spine characterized by an anterior curve of the lumbar area
Marfan's syndrome
inherited condition resulting in excessive cartilage formation at the epiphyseal plates, forming long arms and legs
maxillitis
inflammation of the maxilla
meniscitis
inflammation of a meniscus
myasthenia gravis
weakness in the muscles
myeloma
a malignant tumor of bone marrow
myoclonus
a spasm or twitching of a muscle or muscle group
myocele
protrusion of a muscle through its fascia
myositis
inflammation of muscle tissue
osteitis
inflammation of a bone
osteitis deformans
viral infection of bone that causes deformities of the skeleton resulting from the acceleration of bone loss; also called Paget's disease
osteoarthritis
a form of arthritis characterized by an age-related deterioration of joints that is accompanied by erosion of cartilage and painful inflammation
osteocarcinoma
cancer of bone
osteochondritis
inflammation of bone and associated cartilage
osteofibroma
a benign tumor of bone, in which the tumor contains fibrous connective tissue that surrounds bone
osteogenesis imperfecta
an inherited condition resulting in impaired growth and fragile bones, leading to progressive skeletal deformation and frequent fractures
osteomalacia
a gradual and painful softening of bones
osteomyelitis
a painful bone infection caused by bacteria characterized by inflammation of a red bone marrow
osteonecrosis
death of bone tissue
osteopetrosis
excessive formation of dense bone, which crowds out marrow cavities and leads to cutting off blood supply to bones; also known as marble bone
osteoporosis
abnormal loss of bone density
osteosarcoma
cancer of bone
Paget's disease
viral infection of bone that deforms the skeleton due to the acceleration of bone loss
paraplegia
paralysis of both legs and the lower part of the body
polymyositis
inflammation of many muscles simultaneously
quadroplegia
paralysis of all four appendages
rheumatoid arthritis
a form of arthritis characterized by progressive, gradual joint deterioration that is caused by an autoimmune response; abbreviated RA
scoliosis
abnormal lateral curvature of the spine
spinal cord injury
trauma to the spinal cord often resulting in paralysis; often abbreviated SCI
spondylarthritis
inflammation of the intervertebral joints
sprain
an injury resulting from stretching a ligament beyond its normal range, tearing its collagen fibers
strain
an injury resulting from stretching a muscle beyond its normal range, tearing muscle tissue
synoviosarcoma
cancer of a synovial membrane in a joint
tendonitis
inflammation of a tendon, such as rotator cuff tendonitis
tenosynovitis
inflammation of a tendon and the synovial membrane that surrounds it
Colles
a break in the distal part of the radius
comminuted
a break resulting in fragmentation of the bone
compression
a crushed break, often due to weight or pressure applied to a bone during a fall
displaced
a break causing an abnormal alignment of bone pieces
epiphyseal
a break at the locations of the growth plate, which can affect growth of the bone
greenstick
a slight break in a bone that appears as a slight fissure in an x-ray
nondisplaced
a break in which the broken bones retain their alignment
Pott's
a break at the ankle that affects both bones of the leg
spiral
a spiral-shaped break often caused by twisting stresses along a long bone