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Thomas A Kempis

Imitation of Christ

Avignon Papacy

AKA: Babylonian Captivity

King Philip IV

had Pope Boniface VIII arrested and beaten

King Philip IV

elected Frenchman, Pope Clement V

William of Ockham

wrote of a democratic form of Church government

Marsilus of Padua

in "Defender of the Peace" wrote that Pope had no special power

St. Joan of Arc

Battle of New Orleans

Gregory XI

last of Avignon Popes
returned to Rome

St. Bridget of Sweden and St. Catherine of Sienna

urged Gregory XI to return to Rome

St. Catherine of Sienna

Third Order of St. Dominic
Doctor of the Church

inadequately prepared priests, monastaries wiped out, and bizarre political practices

Bubonic Plague and Weakening Papacy

Italian Pope Urban VI

mobs pressured people to elect this Pope in Rome

Pope Clement VII

Frenchman who was elected Pope in France

Great Western Schism

period where two rival popes (occasionally 3) ruled


theory that Church reform could best take place by calling a council rather than relying on Papal rule


people as a whole had governing authority of CHurch

Council of Pisa

elected third Pope, Aledander V

King Sigismund

called Council of Constance

Pope Gregory XII

legitimate Pope
abdicated papal throne

Martin V

papal elect at Council of Constance

John Wyclif

criticized financial policies of Avignon Papacy and attacked papal authority
dismissed validity of hierarchy, sacraments, and priesthood
Church must return to strict poverty

John Hus

taught Wycliff's teachings in Bohemia
authority of Bible and importance of preaching
denied ultimate authority of Pope in doctrinal matters

Erasmas of Rotterdam

humanist interested in learning from classical texts and producing accurate translations of Bible


wrote Divine Comedy


period when Church was no longer thought of as the only source of beauty, wisdom, and knowledge

Pope Alexander VI

Borgia family
nepotism and simony


every sin must be purified

Council of Ferra-Florence

reunite Eastern and Western Churches

Mohamet II

assaulted Constantinople
ended bull of reunion

Girolamo Savonarola

Dominican who attempted to reform citizens of Florence; radical
burned at stake

Martin Luther

pictured God as a stern judge
no intention of breaking with Church
95 Thesis

Scripture over Tradition
justification by faith alone
Baptism and Eucharist
priesthood of all believers


Philip Melanchton

Augsburg Confession

German Leaders

Peace of Augsburg

democratic rule for Church
removed images, banned Church music, ablolished feast days
Eucharist is only symbol

Ulrich Zwingli

John Calivn

Institutes of CHristian Religion

primacy of Scripture
denied sacraments
condemned papacy, monasticism, clierical celibacy


everyone is a priest

John Knox

Henry VIII

Church of England
divorced Catherine of Aragon
"Defender of the Faith"

Six Articles

issued by Henry VIII
insisted on Catholic teachings and imposed penalties on anyone who denied Eucharist or clerical celibacy

Act of Supremacy

Henry VIII

Thomas Moore and John Fisher

denied Act of Supremacy and killed

Archbiship Cranmer

Book of Common Prayer
Forty Two Articles of Religion

Calvert Family

Maryland formed by this Catholic family

infant baptism invalid


Ignatius of Loyola

Society of Jesus (Jesuits)

St. Teresa of Avila

Carmelite Order

Ignatius of Loyola

Spiritual Exercises

obedience to Pope
preaching, teaching, writing, founding of schools


St. Teresa of Avila

wrote Interior Castle

papal supremacy
scripture AND tradition
Salavation is a FREE gift
Mass is true sacrafice
7 sacraments
purgatory exists
clerical abusts corrected
priestly training

Council of Trent

Index of Forbidden Books

list created by Council of Trent

Pope St. Pius V

severe sanctions for swearing and violating Sundays and Holy Days
Holy Leage to fight Ottomans

Pope St. Pius V

published Catechism and reformed Missal

Pope Paul V

published Roman Ritual

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