Patho: Chapter 4: Cellular Injury

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cell can withstand the assault if injury is ______ or ______ ___________
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Terms in this set (75)
cells adapt to increased work demands by changing in ________, ___________, and _______size, number, formcellular adaptation: sizeatrophy, hypertrophycellular adaptation: numberhyperplasiacellular adaptation: formmetaplasiadecrease in cell sizeatrophyincrease in cell sizehypertrophyincrease in the number of cellshyperplasiareplacement of adult cellsmetaplasiaderanged cell growth of a specific tissuedysplasiaatrophy: cells __________ in size and reduce __________shrink, functionatrophy causes: immobilization, bedrestdisuseatrophy causes: loss of muscle size d/t loss of nervedenervationatrophy causes: inadequate blood supplyischemiaatrophy causes: -_____________ starvation -interruption of ___________ signalsnutrient, endocrineatrophy causes: r/t chronic inflammation and infectionpersistent cell injuryatrophy: cell tries to minimize ___________ and __________ consumptionenergy, nutrientincrease in cell size and in cell functional capacityhypertrophycause of hypertrophy?increased physical/pathophysiologic demandscauses of hypertrophy: -repeated ____________ (muscle) -_______________ (breast tissue) -__________ (liver hypertrophy) -high ____________ ______________ (cardiac hypertrophy) -__________ in generalexercise, hormones, toxins, blood pressure, stressincrease in the number of cells which can increase functional capacityhyperplasiahyperplasia often occurs with _______________hypertrophyhyperplasia results from: -increased _____________ demand (increase RBC w increased altitude) -_______________ stimulation (increased endometrial cells) -persistent ______ ___________ (chronic irritation= calluses)physiologic, hormonal, cell injuryreplacement of one cell type with another typemetaplasiaT/F metaplasia is fully reversibletrueoften occurs with adaptation d/t persistent injury such as chronic inflammation (smoking)metaplasiaT/F metaplasia cells generally remain well differentiated but cancerous conversions can occurtruedisorganized appearance of cells because of abnormal variations in size, shape, and arrangementdysplasiaT/F dysplasia cells do not have significant potential to transform into cancerous cellsfalsein dysplasia, as a tumor grows it exerts __________ on adjacent tissuespressuredysplasia cells are often referred to aspreneoplastic lesionssevere dysplasia invades entire _______________epitheliumsevere dysplasia (invading the entire epithelium) is called...cancer in situ•Which of the following best describes the cellular adaptation seen in chronic cigarette smokers? • A.Atrophy B.Hypertrophy C.Hyperplasia D.Metaplasia E.DysplasiaDcell death that is like cell suicideapoptosisapoptosis eliminates cells that are -_________ ____ -have been produced in ________ -have developed _____________ -have __________ damageworn out, excess, improperly, geneticrefers to cell death in an organ or tissues that is still part of the living personnecrosisnecrosis often interferes with cell _____________ and tissue ____________replacement, regeneration_____________ occurs when a considerable mass of tissue undergoes necrosisgangrenedisruption of the permeability barrier of the plasma membranenecrosisT/F necrosis is not a critical eventfalsenecrosis: -body then attempts to remove ______ cells and compensate for loss of tissue ________ -release of cellular contents into __________dead, function, bloodnecrosis body response: -general _________________ response -general __________, loss of _________ -_________, ________ in heart rate, ________ in WBC, _________ -can detect __________ in the blood from cell deathinflammatory, malaise, appetite, fever, increase, increase, pain, proteinswhen a considerable mass of tissue undergoes necrosisgangrenewhat type of gangrene spreads rapidly?wet gangrenedry gangrene: -the affected tissue becomes _____ and _________, the skin __________, and its color changes to dark _________ or _______.dry, shrinks, wrinkles, brown, blackwhat type of gangrene spreads slowly?dry gangrenewet gangrene: -the affected area is _______, __________, and ____________. the skin is __________, __________, and under tension. ________ form on the surface, liquefaction occurs, and a foul __________ is causedcold, swollen, pulseless, moist, black, blebs, odorDeprives cell of oxygen and interrupts oxidative metabolism and the generation of ATPhypoxic cell injuryacute cellular swellingedemat/f the longer tissue is hypoxic, the greater the chance of irreversible cell injurytruecauses of hypoxia: -inadequate amount of __________ in the air -_____________ disease -inability of the cells to use ____________ -____________ -_______________oxygen, respiratory, oxygen, edema, ischemiaother causes of cell injury: -injury from __________ agents -_____________ injury -____________ injury -injury from _______________ agents -injury from __________ _______________physical, radiation, chemical, biologic, nutritional imbalancesinjury from physical agents: -____________ and ___________ forces -extremes of _____________mechanical, electrical, temperatureradiation injury: -______________ and ________________ radiation -_____________ radiationionizing, nonionizing, ultravioletchemical injury: -___________ -__________ toxicitydrugs, metalinjury from biologic agents: -__________, ___________, _________virus, parasites, bacteriaInjury from nutritional imbalances: -_____________ and __________________excesses, deficiencies•Bacteria cause injury to cells by which of the following mechanisms? CHOOSE ALL THAT APPLY •A. Reproducing inside of host cells altering cellular function •B. Producing destructive enzymes. •C. Producing exotoxins •D. Producing endotoxins •E. Evoking an immune responseB,C,D,Ecumulative result of progressive decline in the cell's ability to repair itselfcellular agingend of the chromosometelomerestelomeres: -_________ with each cell division -_______ cells are able to restore their telomeres -_________ and wear shorten telomeresshorten, stem, stressphysiologic changes with aging: -decrease in ___________ ________ or inability to adapt to ___________ demands over timefunctional reserve, environmental•When the heart's workload increases, myocardial cells: • •A. Divide •B. Enlarge •C. Undergo dysplasia •D. Undergo metaplasiaB•Apoptosis is a physiologic process in which a cell: •A. Divides from two identical daughter cells •B. Undergoes programmed cell death •C. Becomes malignant •D. Converts to a different cell typeB•All of the following cellular responses are potentially reversible except: •A. Atrophy •B. Hyperplasia •C. Necrosis •D. MetaplasiaC