Biology Exam 1

What is systematics?
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Whats the difference in ancestral traits and derived traits?An ancestral trait is what we think was present in the common ancestor of the species of interest. A derived trait is a form that we think arose somewhere on a lineage descended from that ancestorExample of ancestral traitsMammory glands and notochordExample of derived traitsOpposite thumbs and antlersWhat is cladistics?Uses shared derived traits to develop a hypothesis of evolutionary historyWhat is a cladogram?A branching diagram showing the cladistic relationship between a number of speciesHow do you trace phylogeny?Fossil Traits, Morphological Traits, Behavioral Traits, Molecular TraitsWhat are morphological traits?Physical characteristics of an organismWhat are some examples of behavioral traits?Frog mating calls, parental behaviorWhat are molecular traits?DNA, RNA, Proteins - Cytochrome c, Mitochondrial, DNA , MutationsWhat is evoluton?Genetic change in a species over time, resulting in the development of genetic and phenotypic differences that are the basis of natural selection, descent of organisms from a common ancestorWho is Charles Darwin?Father of evolution, theory or natural selectionWho was Baron Georges Cuvier?Developed a system for classifying organismsWhat is biogeography?Is the study of the geographical distribution of organisms throughout the worldWhat two countries did Darwin compare in his studies?South America and EnglandWhy are the Galapagos islands important to evolution?The islands are the site of Charles Darwin's groundbreaking research that formed the basis of his theory of evolutionWhat is natural selection?The idea that the fittest survive and pass along their traits to their offspring.What is heritable variation?Differences passed from parents to offspring caused by variation in their genesWhat three ways can genetic variation go?Harmful, helpful, or neutralWhat is reproductive success?Organisms with favorable traits = more resources = more energy towards reproductionWhat are adaptations?Species modification in structure, function, or behavior that makes a species more suitable to its environmentWhat is the difference between artificial selection and natural selection?Natural Selection acts without the input of humans, artificial Selection requires human inputWhat are some examples of proof of evolution?Fossil Evidence, Biogeographical Evidence, Anatomical Evidence, Biochemical EvidenceWhat are transitional fossils?These fossils often represent an intermediate evolutionary form of life in transition from one type to another or a common ancestor of the typesWhat is biographical evidence?Biogeographical differences show that a single population can lead to adaptation to different environments through the forces of natural selectionWhat is anatomical evidence?Similarities in structure and function of different body partsWhat are homologous structures?Structures that are anatomically similar because they are inherited from a common ancestorWhat are anologous structures?Structures that serve the same purpose but came about a different wayWhat is Biochemical evidence?DNA, RNA, ATP, Amino acids, ProteinsWhat are amino acids?Building blocks of proteinsExamples of amino acidsThymine, guanine, cytosine, adenineWhat is matter?Refers to anything that takes up space and has massWhat are the 4 states of matter?Solid, Liquid, Gas, PlasmaWhat are elements?Basic substances that compose all matter, both living and nonliving, they cannon be broken downWhat are examples of the unique properties of elements?Density, Solubility, Melting point, ReactivityHow many naturally occurring elements are there?94What percent of the body weight of organisms do elements make up?95%What elements are essential to life?Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfurWhat are atoms?The smallest part of an element that displays the properties of the elementWhat is the atomic symbol?Stands for the name of the element and is represented by 1 or 2 lettersWhat three subatomic particles make up atoms?Protons, neutrons, electronsWhere are protons and neutrons located?Inside the nucleusWhere are electrons located?Outside the nucleusWhat are electron shells?The average location or energy level of an electron in an atomWhat is the atomic number?Tells us the number of protons and electronsWhat is mass number?The sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleusWhat is the atomic mass of protons and neutrons?1 amuWhat are isotopes?Atoms with the same number of protons and electrons but different number of neutronsWho is Dmitri Mendeleev?Father of the periodic tableWhat are periods on the periodic table?Horizontal rows (left to right), every atom's atomic number in a period increases by oneWhat are groups on the periodic table?Vertical columns (up and down), all atoms in a group share similar characteristics, namely type of chemical bonds formedWhat are radioactive isotopes?Isotopes that decay spontaneously, giving off particles and energyWhat is carbon dating?A scientific method of determining the age of an artifact, to determine age you compare the amount of 14C to 12CWhat is an example of low level radioactive isotopes?Tracer in medical imagingWhat are effects of high levels of radiation?Can harm cells, damage DNA, and in turn cause cancerHow many electrons can each orbital hold?1st shell can hold 2, 2nd shell can hold 8What is the outermost electron shell called?Valence shellWhat are molecules?A union of 2 or more atoms of the same element, also the smallest part of the compound that retains the properties of the compoundWhat is a compound?A substance having atoms of 2 or more different elements in a fixed ratioWhat is a chemical formula?Tells you the number of each kind of atom in a moleculeWhat is ionic bonding?This happens when compounds are held together by attraction of opposite charges, an atom becomes charged when they accepted or give an electronWhat is covalent bonding?This results when 2 atoms share electrons, and in doing so their valence shells are filledWhat are nonpolar covalent bonds?Equal sharing of electronsWhat are polar covalent bonds?Unequal sharing of electronsWhat are hydrogen bonds?Weak bonds that form by a slightly positive hydrogen atom of one molecule and a slightly negative atom of another molecule or between the same parts of the same moleculeWhere are hydrogen bonds found?Not just in water, but also in DNAWhat are the properties of water?High Heat Capacity, High Heat of Evaporation, Solvent, Cohesive and Adhesive, Frozen is Less Dense than LiquidWhat is a solvent?The substance in which the solute dissolvesWhy is water a good solvent?Because of its polarity and ability to form hydrogen bondsWhat do cohesion and adhesion allow water to do?Cohesion and adhesion of water allow blood to fill the tubular vessels of the cardiovascular systemWhy is frozen water less dense?When water freezes the molecules expand, this makes frozen water less dense than liquid water, why ice floatsWhat are acids?A chemical that gives off hydrogen ions in water and forms salts by combining with certain metals, below 7 phWhat are bases?Substances that either take up hydrogen ions or release hydroxide ions, high hydrogen ion concentrations, above 7 phWhat is a buffer?A substance that minimizes changes in pHWhat is the normal ph of blood?7.4 when healthyWhat are the 4 states of matter?Solid, Liquid, Gas, PlasmaWhat are elements?A substance that cannot be broken down into a simpler formatWhat is Biology?The word biology is derived from the Greek words /bios/ meaning life and logos meaning study and is defined as the science of life and living organismsWhat is energy?The capacity to do work and it takes work to maintain organization of the cell and the organism in questionWhy does life need energy?To maintain its levels of organization it requires energy input, comes in the form of nutrientsWhat is homeostatis?The regulation of the conditions in our body maintaining stable internal environment, our kidneys are an exampleWhat are some examples of living organisms responding?The ability to respond can be anything from movement to a physiological response, Search and compete for nutrients, shelter, mates, communication, hunting, and defense behaviorsHow do organisms reproduce?This is done either by sexual or asexual reproduction, When organisms reproduce they pass on their genes to their offspringWhat do genes do?Genes hold our genetic code or DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)What are mutations?Mutations are heritable changes in genetic information, Mutations are the reason for the differences in the genetic infoWhat are adaptations?Modifications that make organisms better able to function in a particular environment, provides the frame work for evolutionWhat is evolution?The way populations change over time to become better suited to their environment, these changes occur over generationsWhat is natural selection?How organisms that are better adapted or fit will survive, and pass on their genes to the next generationWhat is taxonomy?The discipline of identifying and grouping organisms according to certain rulesWhat is systematics?The study of the evolutionary relationships between organisms.What is DNA technology used for?To revise current information and to discover unknown relationships between organismsWhat are the basic classification categories?Domain, Supergroup, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, SpeciesWhat are the three domains?Bacteria, Archaea, EukaryaWhat do Bacteria and Archaea contain?They contain prokaryotesWhat do Eukarya contain?They contain eukaryotesWhat are prokaryotes?A type of cell that lacks the membrane bond nucleus and the membranous organellesWhat are eukaryotes?A type of cell that has a membrane bound nucleus and membranous organellesWhat are the 4 kingdoms in the Domain Eukarya?Plantae, Animalia, Fungi, ProtistaWhat is a scientific name?The binomial nomenclature to assign each organism a 2 part name called the scientific name, The first part of the name, genius and the second part, species designation or specific epithetWhat is the scientific method?Procedure used to systematically, and without bias, answer a question, This acts as a guideline for scientific studiesWhat are the steps of the scientific method?Observation, Testable Hypothesis, Experiment, Data/Results, ConclusionsWhat is inductive reasoning?Uses specific observations to construct general scientific principlesWhat is deductive reasoning?Tests the generalizations gleaned from the inductive reasoning on a set of specific observationsWhat is a hypothesis?An explanation that explains why this or that happensWhat are experiments?How we test hypotheses, A series of procedures designed to collect data for the purpose of testing the hypothesisWhat is a good experimental design?Use of replication and randomizationWhat is a scientific theory?A theory supported by a broad range of observations, experiments, and data, often from a variety of disciplines, sometimes become principles and lawsWhat are vestigial structures?Remnants of features that served important functions in the organism's ancestors