Terms in this set (176)

Arbitrary inference: Drawing a conclusion without evidence or in the face of contradictory evidence.
Example: A young woman with anorexia nervosa believes she is fat although she is dying from starvation.
Selective abstraction: Dwelling on a single negative detail taken out of context.
Example: While on a date, you say one thing you wish you could have said differently and now see the entire evening as a disaster.
Overgeneralization: A single negative event is viewed as a never-ending pattern of defeat.
Example: Following a job interview, an accountant does not receive the job. He/she begins thinking that they will never find a job position despite their qualifications.
Magnification and/or minimization: The binocular trick. Things seem bigger or smaller than they are.
Example: An employee believes that a minor mistake will lead to being fired.
Example: An alcoholic believes he/she doesn't have a problem.
Personalization: Assuming personal responsibility for something for which you are not responsible.
Often seen in patients who are sexually abused/assaulted.
Dichotomous thinking: Things are seen as black and white, there is no gray or middle ground.
Things are wonderful or awful, good or bad, perfect or a failure.
Mind reading: Assuming someone is responding negatively to you without checking it out.
Example: If your husband is in a bad mood, you assume it is your fault and don't ask what is wrong.
Fortune teller error: Creating a negative self-fulfilling prophecy.
Example: You believe you will fail an exam so you don't study and fail.
Emotional reasoning: You assume that your negative feeling results from the fact that things are negative.
Example: If you feel bad, then that means the world or situation is bad. You don't consider that your feelings are a misrepresentation of the facts.
Should statements: Use words like should, must, ought rather than "it would be preferred" to guilt self.
Labeling and mislabeling: Name-calling (such as "he's a jerk") rather than just criticizing the behavior.