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55 terms

PSY-270 Test II Review

STUDY
PLAY
Disability
Inability to do something specific.
Handicap
Disadvantage in a certain situation.
5 Risk Factors of Suicide
Depression, substance abuse, history of suicide in the family, stress, family conflict.
Students with Intellectual Disabilities
These students are not to be diagnosed by test scores alone. They usually score 70 or lower on the IQ test, have problems with adaptive behaviors, independent living functions, and hygiene. Their learning goals are likely to include living skills.
Students with Autism and Asperger Syndrome
Students with these intellectual disabilities have major difficulty in social interactions, avoid eye contact, have little or no language skills, sensory sensitivity, and socially inappropriate behaviors, such as repeating stories and knowledge of obscure facts.
Gifted and Talented Students
These students score in the top 1% of the IQ test. They are larger, stronger and healthier than normal. Usually, they learn to walk sooner, are better adjusted as adults, and are at risk for depression, boredom and isolation. The current belief about teaching the gifted is enrichment and acceleration.
Learning
Relatively permanent change in knowledge or behavior resulting from experience. May be deliberate or unintentional, correct, or incorrect.
Three Types of Learning
Classical conditioning, operant conditioning, observational learning. These all operate under the same principle - learning by association.
Classical Conditioning
A tendency to connect events that occur together in time and space. This concept was originally developed by Ivan Pavlov.
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
A stimulus that automatically elicits a response without learning.
Unconditioned Response (UCR)
An automatic, unlearned reaction to the unconditioned stimulus.
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
A previously neutral stimulus that, after association, prompts a conditioned response.
Conditioned Response (CR)
A learned reaction to a stimulus that was once neutral and after association becomes conditioned.
Extinction
The elimination of a learned response by removal of the UCS or reinforcement.
Discrimination
The ability to distinguish between different stimuli.
Operant Conditioning
Associates response with its consequence. Behavior is more or less probable depending on its consequences. This learning type was pioneered by psychologist B.F. Skinner.
Reinforcer
A consequence that increases the likelihood that behavior will occur again.
Positive Reinforcement
Providing a positive stimulus.
Negative Reinforcement
Removing an aversive stimulus.
Punishment
A consequence that decreases the likelihood that behavior will occur again.
Positive Punisher
Providing an aversive stimulus.
Negative Punisher
Removing a positive stimulus.
Shaping
Encouraging a new behavior by reinforcing successive approximations.
Primary Reinforcers
Stimuli that are innately reinforcing.
Secondary Reinforcers
Stimuli that are rewarding because of their association with primary reinforcers.
Four Categories of Problem Behaviors
Need for attention, escape from unpleasant situation, gain item or activity, meet sensory need.
Functional Behavioral Assessments
These help us to understand WHY behaviors happen. They use ABC observation (Antecedent, Behavior, Consequence). Also provides behavior supports. Some behaviors do not serve the same purpose for all students.
Observational Learning
Learning by observation. Not all learning comes from direct experience! Sometimes, we watch others and see what happens.
Albert Bandura
This psychologist did studies about observational learning with children and Bobo dolls. He had two stages of observational learning: acquisition and performance.
4 Steps of Observational Learning
Attention, retention, reproduction, motivation. {NOTE: These are in the correct order. You MUST list them in order for the exam. :)}
Behaviorism Approach
Learning is passively influenced by external events. The goal is to identify few general principles that apply in all situations.
Cognitive Approach
Learning is an extension of understanding already possessed. This is an ACTIVE process.
Sensory Memory
Stores all stimuli that register on the senses. Has a very large capacity, and lasts between 1-3 seconds.
Working Memory
The workbench of the memory system. Contains information that the brain is working on at that moment. Also includes both temporary storage and active processing.
Short-Term Memory (STM)
Memory that can hold 7 +/- 2 items for about 20 seconds. It has a limited capacity.
Chunk
A meaningful unit of information. Without rehearsal, we remember 4 +/- 2 chunks. With rehearsal, we remember 7 +/- 2 chunks.
Cognitive Load
The amount of mental resources required to complete a task.
Intrinsic Cognitive Load
The load required to complete the task itself.
Extraneous Cognitive Load
The amount of mental resources needed to complete tasks irrelevant to the original task.
Germane Cognitive Load
Deep knowledge, including connecting information to old information and activation.
Maintenance Rehearsal
Keeping information in memory by repeating it to oneself. This keeps information in Working Memory.
Elaborative Rehearsal
Keeping information in memory by connecting it to previously held knowledge. This stores in Long-Term Memory.
Long-Term Memory (LTM)
Once information passes from sensory to short-term memory, it can be encoded into long-term memory.
Declarative Knowledge
Verbal information (facts).
Procedural Knowledge
Knowledge that is demonstrated when we perform a task. "Knowing how".
Self-Regulatory Knowledge
Knowing how to manage your learning or knowing when and how to use your procedural or declarative knowledge.
Explicit Memories
Knowledge from memory that is recalled and consciously considered.
Implicit Memories
Knowledge that we are not aware of recalling.
Organization
Ordered and logical networks of relations.
Elaboration
Adding and extending meaning by connecting new information to old.
Context
The physical or emotional backdrop associated with an event.
Context-Dependent Memory
Environment.
Free-Recall Test
A type of explicit memory task in which a person must reproduce information without the benefit of cues.
Recognition Task
A form of explicit memory retrieval in which items are presented to a person who must determine if they were previously encountered.
Lack of Encoding
Often, we don't even encode the features necessary to "remember" an object or event. What is this called?