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What contributed to the breakup of the Union?
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What did Zachary Taylor do with California and what were his thoughts about slavery?Zachary Taylor admitted California to the Union as a free state. (He wanted the same for New Mexico.) He believed that slavery could not exist in the West.Who won the 1848 presidential election?Zachary TaylorWhat was the convention that called for a unified southern position against what was termed "Northern aggression." What did this assembly adopt?The Nashville Convention. This assembly adopted resolutions demanding equal access to the territories for slave owners.The Provisions of the Compromise of 1850 included:1. California would be admitted as a free state 2. The Utah and New Mexico territories would decide for themselves whether to be a free or slave state 3. A border dispute between Texas and New Mexico would be settled in New Mexico's favor 4. Slave trade would be abolished in the District of Columbia 5. A tougher fugitive slave law would force the return of slaves captured in free states to their southern ownersWho organized the compromise package and guided it through Congress?Henry ClayWho agreed with the compromise and signed it?Millard FillmoreWhat did Henry Clay do with his bill that helped it pass more easily?He broke the bill into separate parts; therefore, different coalitions within Congress enabled the passage of the separate bills.What were some objections to the Fugitive Slave Law?1. The Law denied a jury trial for alleged fugitives 2. It applied to any slave who had ever run away 3. Anti-slavery northerners saw the law as forcing them to work for something they opposedAfter the 3 year presidency of Millard Fillmore (1850-1853, because of Taylors death), who won the election of 1852?Democrat Franklin PierceWhat happened to the Whig party after a Democrat won the 1852 election?The party fell apart and soon passed out of existenceWho promoted Chicago as the eastern terminus for a transcontinental railroad?Illinois Democratic Senator Stephen DouglasWhat was Douglas's plan regarding the organization of the Kansas and Nebraska territories?His plan was for them to decide on slavery by "popular sovereignty."What happened at the territory that is known as bleeding Kansas?Many settlers who entered Kansas were either antislavery or proslavery and wanted to dominate the state. This caused a lot of competition and controversy that led to 2 million dollars worth of damage and 6 deaths.Who gave a speech in the Senate strongly denouncing slave interests and poured hateful words onto South Carolina's Democratic Senator, Andrew Butler?Republican Massachusetts Senator, Charles Sumner.What did Presto Brooks (Butler's nephew) do to Sumner because of what he said about Butler?Presto Brooks confronted Sumner and ended up beating him with his heavy, gold-headed cane. This left Sumner incapacitated for over 2 years.Where was Henry Clay born and where did he move?He was born in Virginia and moved to Kentucky.What state did Henry Clay represent in the state legislature and the U.S Senator?KentuckyWhat is Henry Clay known for politically?crafting the Missouri Compromise of 1820What cabinet position did Clay hold while John Quincy Adams was president?Secretary of StateWhat state(s) did Daniel Webster represent in Congress?He represented both New Hampshire and MassachusettsWhat was Webster known for politically?being very good at public speaking, arguing and debating cases before the U.S Supreme Court.What cabinet position did Webster hold while William Henry Harrison was president?Secretary of StateWhat state(s) did John C. Calhoun represent in Congress?South CarolinaWhat was Calhoun known for politically?being a strong defender of slavery (which was a very controversial practice)What cabinet position did Calhoun hold while James Monroe was president? What other cabinet position did Calhoun hold while John Tyler was president?Secretary of War and Secretary of State.What did all 3 of these men want but never got?to become president.What was the Ostend Manifesto?A Declaration of American interest to gain control of Cuba. Cuba already had slavery but the Ostend Manifesto was seen by many as an attempt to extend slavery.Who won the 1856 presidential election?Democratic James BuchananWho was the main opposition during the 1856 election?Republican John C. FremontWhat was the Dred Scott case?A case that was taken to the Supreme Court because Dred Scott thought he should be free. 5 Justices joined together to deny Scotts appeal.The Dred Scott decision said what about popular sovereignty?It said that popular sovereignty was illegal because it would deny people their property ownership rights since slaves were considered property.When and where did the Lincoln and Douglas debates take place?Illinois of 1858What was the outcome of the contest between Lincoln and Douglas?the win and re-election in the U.S Senate for the Democrats (Douglas) and a win in the House of Representatives for the RepublicansWhat did John Brown do on October of 1859 in Harpers ferry WV?He led a raid with the purpose to arm slaves and encourage them to revoltThe key issues in the slavery debate involved what questions?1. Is the issue slavery or the state's rights? 2. Abolish slavery or help it expand? 3. Moral issue or economic one? 4. What should the primary goal of the Federal policy be? 5. Protection of abolition or limitation?Why did the Democratic party divide North and South?Because during the 1860 Democratic convention, issues were created due to difference of opinion regarding slavery. The party's nominees were Senator Stephan Douglas (North) and John C. Breckenridge (South)Where was the 1860 Republican Convention held?In Abraham Lincolns backyard in Chicago.Who won the 1860 presidential election?Abraham LincolnWho was the Republicans leading contender and why did he end up not being nominated?William Seward. He was not nominated by the republicans because he was strongly antislavery and the Republicans wanted a more moderate candidate.Who was nominated and won the 1860 vice presidential election?Hannibal HamlinWho was the fourth national candidate for president?John BellWhat was some of Abraham Lincolns political experience?1. Attorney 2. State militia during the Black Hawk war 3. Whig State Legislator (4 terms) 4. U.S Congressman (1 term)What state was the first to secede and why did they do it?South Carolina. The South believed they could not trust a Republican Administration and whether they would interfere with slavery or not.What other southern states seceded by February 1st, 1861?Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and TexasWhat happened with the 7 states that had seceded?Representatives from those 7 states met in Montgomery, Alabama to form the Confederate States of America. Jefferson Davis was chosen as president and Alexander Stephens as vice president.What was one last-ditch proposal put forward by Congress to avoid war?guaranteeing the continuation of slavery where it existed and allowing slavery south of the 36*30' parallel. The amendment guaranteeing slavery where it then existed was not considered by the states.What did Lincoln restate in his first inaugural address?He restated his position that he had no intention of interfering with slavery where it existed and that secession was wrong.Who did Lincoln say would be at fault if a war came?the SouthWhy did the confederates open fire at 4:30 am, on April 12, 1861?Confederate forces did not allow Lincoln to resupply the men at Fort Sumter who had run low of supplies while confederate forces laid siege to it. (although Lincoln notified the South Carolina governor of his intentions)Why did Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee secede? (11 states were now part of the Confederacy)Because Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers to be raised by state militias and also declared a blockade of southern ports.What were the four slave states that remained in the Union?Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, and MissouriWhat is the writ of habeas corpus?a writ requiring a person under arrest to be brought before a judge or into court, especially to secure the person's release unless lawful grounds are shown for their detention.What are some things Lincoln did to prevent the secession of Maryland?He suspended the writ of habeas corpus and put pro-confederate leaders in jailWhat was the number of the population and remaining states of the North and South when the civil war started?the North was around 23 million and the South was around 9 million. There were 23 states in the Union and 11 in the Confederacy.How many southerners joined the Union army?about 100,000Who was offered the command of Union forces and why did he reject the offer?Robert E. Lee. He decided to fight for the confederacy because he could not bring himself to fight against his own home, Virginia.Which region was more successful economically and agriculturally and how?the North. They manufactured almost all of the country's firearms and railroad equipment, they produced more crops, and they had a much stronger financial position.What was the substitute policy?A provision in the military draft laws that allowed men to avoid service by providing a substitute in his placeWhat was the Union Anaconda strategy against the South?1. Defend Washington and attack Richmond 2. Maintain a naval blockade of southern ports 3. Divide the confederacy by it's main water routes (Mississippi, Tennessee, and Cumberland)What was the main goal of confederate military strategy?Hold the union to a stalemate that they believed would lead to a favorable turn of eventsWhat was the first battle of the Civil War and who won?First Battle of Bull Run. The Confederates.Who put New Orleans and lower Mississippi into union hands in the spring of what year?Union Admiral David Farragut. 1862.Where did most battles of the Civil War take place?Virginia and TennesseeWho led the Union breakthrough action in the west?General Ulysses S. GrantWhat two forts in Tennessee did the Union capture?Fort Henry and Fort DonelsonWhat was Ulysses S. Grant's nickname and how did he get it?Unconditional Surrender. He said there are no other terms then "immediate and unconditional surrender."What was the capital of the Union? What was the capital of the Confederacy?Washington D.C, MD. Richmond, VA.What Commander of the Union Army always hesitated and needed to make sure there would be a 100% victory before he did anything?McClellanWhat railroad center were Grant and his army headed for and where were they attacked on the way?They were headed for the railroad center of Corinth, Mississippi when they were attacked near Shiloh Church in Southern Tennessee.Which commanding general died during the battle of Shiloh?Confederate commanding general, Albert Sidney JohnstonHow many men were killed and wounded during the battle of Shiloh?around 20,000 (more then the Revolutionary war, the War of 1812, and the Mexican war combined)Where did Robert. E. Lee first invade the Union?Antietam Creek, SharpsburgWho led their opposing forces at Stones River?Confederacy Braxton Bragg and Union William RosecransWho won the battle of Shiloh? Who won the second battle of Bull Run? Who won the battle of Antietam? Who won the battle of Fredericksburg? Who won the battle of Stones River?Shiloh, Union victory. Second Bull run, Confederate victory. Antietam, Union victory. Fredericksburg, Confederate victory. Stones River, Union victoryWhat was the Emancipation Proclamation? When was it issued and who was it issued by?The proclamation declared "that all persons held as slaves" within the rebellious states "are, and henceforward shall be free." It was issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863.After the emancipation, how many African Americans served in the Union Army?Almost 200,000.When did Lincoln present his Gettysburg address and what was it for?A ceremony was held to dedicate the national cemetery at the Gettysburg battlefield on November 19, 1863. This is when Lincoln gave his speech that is now one of the most famous speeches in the world.Who won the battle of Gettysburg? Who won the battle of Chickamauga? Who won the battle of Lookout Mountain?Gettysburg, Union victory. Chickamauga, Confederate victory. Lookout Mountain, Union victory.Who was the last general-in-chief that Abraham Lincoln appointed?U.S Grant.Which general took Atlanta and led the march across Georgia?Union General William ShermanWho was Lincoln's Vice Presidential nominee in 1864?Andrew JohnsonWho was the Democratic Presidential nominee in 1864?George McClellanWhat was the confederates last attempt to weaken Union control of the West?Push North and invade Kentucky. (--but they were defeated in series of engagements in middle Tennessee)What was the last battle of the Civil War and how/when did it happen?Appomattox Courthouse. Petersburg was taken by Union troops and Richmond was evacuated. On April 9th, 1865, Lee met Grant in a farmhouse near the village of Appomattox courthouse and surrendered his army.What was the conflict between Lincoln and the Radical Republicans about readmission of the states?Lincoln wanted to readmit them with as little disruption and controversy as possible, while the Radicals wanted the southern leaders to "pay for their rebellion."When and where was Lincoln assassinated? Who killed him?April 14, 1865 at Ford's theater in Washington D.C. John Wilkes Booth.What other federal leaders were supposed to be assassinated the same night?Secretary of State William Seward (he was stabbed and survived) and Vice President Johnson (his assassin talked himself out of it)How were Military companies organized?By localities. Men who fought with each other usually knew each other.What did the military drafts cause in the North and South?This was one of the reasons why the South had left the Union. The North endured many riots (over 100 deaths and $2 million dollars in property damage) because both regions believed that it was "an unauthorized action of a central government"How was the Northern economy affected after the war? How was the Southern economy affected after the war?The North was very prosperous but the South was the opposite.What is an armistice?A truce; an agreement made by opposing sides to end the warWho were the Copperheads?Northern Democrats who opposed the war and pressed for an armistice in the fighting.How did the Union and the Confederacy finance the war?The Union placed taxes. The Confederacy printed greenbacks and issued bonds.After the war had ended, what dilemmas and questions did the country have to face?1. Who would govern the southern states? 2. What would be the rights and the roles of former slaves? 3. Could whites and blacks live together in harmony? 4. What was the best way for the southern states to be made fully part of the Union againWhat was the Freedman's Bureau?government agency to provide education, healthcare, and homes for freed slavesWhat is sharecropping?Renting of land to former slaves. They worked in the owners fields and received a share of the crop as pay.What were slave codes? What codes were made after the Civil War ended?slave codes were strict state laws that controlled the actions of slaves. After slaves were freed, black codes were made to regulate what they could and could not do.Who were the Radical Republicans?those Republicans after the Civil War who controlled Reconstruction policy in the former Confederate states.What was the Joint Committee?It was a new body formed by Congress to develop a plan for reconstruction. Congressman Thaddeus Stevens was the leader.What was the fourteenth amendment and when was it passed and ratified?Gave citizenship to all persons born in the USA, gave African- Americans equal protection under the law. It was passed on July 8th, 1866 and ratified on July 9th, 1868.What was the punishment if blacks were not allowed to vote in a state?That states representation would be reduced proportionallyWhat did the fourth clause declare about confederate debts?null and void.What was the Military Reconstruction Act?A plan for reconstruction, that divided the south into five military districts (Not TN) no confederate generals can hold offices, all states must rewrite constitutions.Who were carpetbaggers?Northerners who moved to the south after the war for moneyWho were Scalawags?white southerners who joined the republican partyWhy was the Ku Klux Klan formed?Some southerners reacted to these new changed with bitterness and resentment, many were violent against blacks. This conflict led to the creation of the KKK.Who was the president who hated Radical Republicans and disagreed with their views?Andrew JohnsonWhat was the Tenure of Office Act?It prohibited the president from firing government employees without Senate approvalWhich body impeached Andrew Johnson?the House of RepresentativesWhich body conducted the impeachment trial?The SenateWhat happened during the impeachment trial?Johnson was not impeached but he was also not re-elected because his national reputation was ruined. The Radical Republicans also dealt with political damage.What was the Morrill Tarriff?this set higher rates for imported goods (1862)What was the Homestead Act?Gave settlers 160 free acres of land for a filing fee and agreeing to live on the land for 5 years. (1862)What was the Morrill Land Grant Act?The federal government had donated public land to the states to establish colleges; as a result, 69 land-grant institutions were established. (1862)Who won the 1868 presidential election?Ulysses S. GrantWhat did the Fifteenth Amendment do?guaranteed African American men the right to voteWho was Grants opponent in the 1872 election?Horace Greeley (Democrat)What were greenbacks?commodity printed money used during the Civil WarWhat encouraged people to move West?homestead act, mining, free range of land, railroads, seek own wealthWhat were cattle drives?efforts to move cattle north to railroadsBetween 1869-1875 how many battles took place between native warriors and the U.S army?over 200Who won the Battle of the Little Bighorn? (between George Custer--U.S army--and Sitting Bull--the Sioux)The Sioux and their leader, Sitting BullBetween 1830-1870, by how much did the urban population increase from 1.1 million?times 9. 9.9 millionWhere did most of the immigrants come from during 1860-1900?Southern/Eastern Europe, Italy, Poland, the Balkan countries, and RussiaWho were the presidential candidates in 1876?Democrat Samuel J. Tilden and Republican Rutherford B. Hayes.Who was denied access to the American dream?African AmericansWhat states were suspected of fraud because of the electoral voting?Oregon, Louisiana, South Carolina, and FloridaWhat two companies built the transcontinental railroad?the Union Pacific railroad company and the Central Pacific railroad companyWhat two points did the transcontinental railroad start from?west from Ohama, Nebraska and east from SacramentoWho worked for the Union Pacific? Who worked for the Central Pacific?ex-civil war soldiers and Irish Immigrants worked for the Union Pacific. 90% of the employed for the Central Pacific were Chinese men.How did the government give financial assistance to the railroads?1. Giving each company twenty sections of land along the route for every mile 2. Making loans; $16,000-$48,000 per mile 3. The companies received tax breaks from local, state, and national governmentsWhere did the two points of the UP and CP railroads meet?Promontory point, UtahWhat were some negative aspects from the railroad?1. The government paid about $100 million for work that actually cost about $45 million (corruption/overbilling) 2. White men wiped out the bison population on the plains; therefore, decimating the life of the Indians who counted on bison.Who won the presidency after Congress voted individually? (7 democrats, 7 republicans, and Republican Senator Joseph Bailey)Rutherford B. HayesWhat did the Republicans promise if Hayes were elected?that Hayes would withdraw the remaining reconstruction troops from the South.What happened after Hayes took office?He removed the last federal troops from the South and named former confederate general David Key of Tennessee as postmaster generalWhy were the promises between Hayes and the Democrats broken?because the democrats opposed Garfield for House Speaker. Republican led governments in the South collapsed, once again giving the democrats control of the SouthWho were the main losers in this arrangement and why?Southern blacks because: 1. The Republican party abandoned them because they were no longer needed for the party to achieve its goals 2. Southern democrats had no interest in protecting or extending their rights