Cartilage and Bone

The skeletal system is a vital reservoir for what two substances?
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Terms in this set (126)
The smooth muscle of bone is foundIn the walls of the vasculatureThe fluid CT of bone is theBloodThe epithelium of bone is foundLining the vasculatureBone contains allTissue typesWhat are the functions of bone?Support/protection, movement, hematopoiesis, storage of mineral and energy reservesBlood cells are produced in connective tissue called ______ that is located in spongy boneRed bone marrowWhat does red bone marrow contain?Stem cells that form all of the formed elementsIn children, red bone marrow is found where?Spongy bone and medullary cavity of most of the bones in the bodyIn adults, red bone marrow is found where?Flat bones of the skull, vertebra, ribs, sternum, os coxae, proximal epiphysis of humerus and femurWhat does much of the red bone marrow degenerate into with maturation in adults?Fatty yellow bone marrowBone stores and releases over 90% of calcium and phosphate, how does bone provide it when they are needed?Bone is dissolved and stored minerals are released into the blood streamCalcium is essential forMuscle contraction, blood clotting, neural communicationPhsophate is needed forATP utilization (adenosine triphosphate)Energy in the form of lipids is stored in theYellow bone marrowWhat are the four classes of bones?Long, short, flat, irregularWhat is the most common bone shape?Long bonesShort bones are nearly equal length to width, covered with compact externally and spongy internally, and more cuboidal shaped. What are examples?Carpals, tarsals, sesamoid bonesFlat bones are composed of parallel surfaces of compact bone with an internal layer of spongy bone and provide what function?Extensive surfaces for muscle attachment, protect underlying soft tissueThe _______ or the shaft of the long bone provides leverage and weight supportDiaphysisThe ______ or the knobby region at both ends of a long bone has proximal and distal ends and are enlarged to provide strength for articulation and tendon/ligament attachmentEpiphysisWhat are the epiphysis of long bone made of?Outer layer of compact, inner layer of spongy boneThe _____ is between the diaphysis and epiphysis and contains the epiphyseal growth plateMetaphysisWhat is the remnant of the epiphyseal growth plate called in adults?Epiphyseal line________ is the thin layer of hyaline cartilage that covers the epiphyses and reduces friction/absorbs shockArticular cartilageArticular cartilage is lost in what kind of diseases?Degenerative joint diseasesThe _____ is the hollow cylindrical space within the diaphysis that contains yellow bone marrow in adults and is the major site of _______Medullary cavity, hematopoiesisThe ______ is an incomplete layer of cells that covers all internal surfaces of the boneEndosteumWhat kind of cells does the endosteum contain?Osteoprogenitor, osteoblasts, osteoclastsWhen is the endosteum active?During bone growth, repair, and remodelingThe ____ is the tough sheath that covers the outer surface of the bone, excluding the epiphysesPeriosteumThe periosteum is comprised ofDense irregular CT, outer fibrous and inner cellularThe periosteum is anchored to the bone how?Perforating collage fibers that run perpendicular to the diaphysisWhat are the four types of cells in bone CT?Osteocytes, osteoclasts, osteoblasts, osteoprogenitor cellsWhat gives rise to osteoprogenitor cells? (ie. the stem cells specific to bone lineage)Mesenchymal cellsWhat are osteoprogenitor cells able to divide into?Another stem cell, or a precursor to an osteoblastWhere are osteoprogenitor cells located?In the periosteum and endosteum_____ are the cells that produce new bones by secreting ______ the initial semisolid, organic/uncalcified matrix of boneOsteoblasts, osteoidHow does osteoid become hardened?Calcium depositionWhat does an osteoblast differentiate into once it surrounds itself by the matrix (aka a lacuna)?OsteocyteOsteocytes remain in lacuna and perform what function?Detect mechanical stress on the boneThe _____ are the fixed macrophages specific to bone that are large, phagocytic, and multinuclear and have a ruffled border on one side where they contact the boneOsteoclastsWhere are osteoclasts often located?In a depression on the bone surface called a resorption or howship lacunaOsteoclasts are involved in bone resorption (dissolving bone) by secreting ______ which does what?Hydrochloric acid, dissolves inorganic components ie. calcium and phosphate in the bone matrixThe release of the stored calcium and phosphate from the bone matrix is calledOsteolysisWhat happens to calcium and phosphate once they are dissolved from bone?They enter tissue fluid and then the bloodWhat do osteoclasts secrete to dissolve the organic components of the bone matrix?EnzymesIf osteoclast activity outpaces osteoblast activity, what happens?Bones lose mass and become weaker - osteoporosisIf osteoblast activity outpaces osteoclast activity, what happens?Bones increase in mass and become more prone to fracture - osteopetrosisWhat happens in postmenopausal osteoporosis?Osteoclast activity is increased and affects mainly bones or portions of bones with increased surface area such as portions of the vertebral bodies, which leads to thinning, microfractures, and eventually vertebral collapseOsteopetrosis is also know as ________ and refers to a group of rare genetic diseases that are characterized by reduced bone resorption andMarble bone disease, diffuse symmetric skeletal sclerosis due to impaired formation or function of osteoclasts. Bones are abnormally brittle and fracture easily like chalkOsteopetrosis was the first genetic disease to be treated how?With hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, affective because osteoclasts are derived from hematopoietic precursors (monocytes)The bone is 1/3 organic components which areCells, collagen fibers (tensile strength and flexibility), ground substance (suspends and supports fibers, semisolid)The bone is 2/3 inorganic components which areTo provide compressional strength and hardening of the matrixThe inorganic components of bone calcium phosphate and calcium hydroxide combine to form ______ crystals which do what?Hydroxyapatite, deposit around collagen fibers in ECM and harden the matrixWhat are the two types of bone present in most bones of the body?Compact/dense/cortical, spongy/cancellous/trabecular______ bone is solid, relatively dense, forms the solid external walls of the boneCompact______ bone is porous, forms an open lattice of narrow beams called trabaculae, and located internally, primarily within the epiphysisSpongyWhat is the basic structural and functional unit of compact bone?An osteon/Haversian systemHaversian systems/osteons run _____ to the diaphysis of a long boneParallelWhat are the components of an osteon?Central canal, concentric lamellae, osteocytes, canaliculiThe central/haversian canal is the channel that lies in the center of the osteon and does what?Provides resistance to mechanical stress, contains blood vessels and nerves that supply the bone that provide nutrients and remove wasteThe concentric lamellae are rings of bone CT that surround the central canal, forming the bulk of the osteon. Each lamella's collagen fibers are oriented in opposite directions for what?To resist forces in opposite directions, gives bones part of their strength and resilienceThe osteocytes are housed within the lacunae which are locatedBetween adjacent concentric lamellaeWhat are the interconnecting channels between lacunae and the central canal called?CanaliculiCanaliculu house ______ and permitOsteocyte cytoplasmic projections, permit intercellular contact and communication/transmission of waste/minerals/nutrients/gasesWhat are the components of bone that are not part of the osteon?Circumferential lamellae, perforating/volkmann canals, interstitial lamellae______ run perpendicular to and connect multiple central canals and create a vascular and innervation network among multiple osteonsPerforating/Volkmann canalsWhat are circumferential lamellae?Rings of bone immediately internal to the periosteum (external circumferential lamellae) or endosteum (internal) that are formed by leftover osteons that have been partially absorbed following bone remodeling and formation of new osteonsTrue/False: Spongy bones contain osteonsFalseTrabaculae in spongy bone are composed ofParallel lamellaeBetween parallel lamellae of spongy bone, osteocytes are house in lacunae that have an abundance ofCanaliculi that open to the surface of the trabaculae_____ is the formation and development of boneOssification/osteogenesis________ ossification forms thickened condensations of mesenchymeIntramembranous______ ossification follows a precursor model of hyaline cartilageEndochondralIntramembranous ossification produces what bones?Flat bones of the skull, some facial bones, mandible, central part of clavicleWhat are the four steps of intramembranous ossification?1) Ossification centers (containing osteoblasts making osteoid) form within thickened regions of mesencyhme 2) Osteoid undergoes calcification 3) Woven bone and surround periosteum form 4) Lamellar bone replaces woven bone and compact and spongy bone formEndochondral ossification forms from hyaline cartilage and produces what bones?Most bones of the skeleton ie. upper and lower limbs, pelvis, vertebrae, ends of clavicleWhat are the steps of endochondral ossification?1) Fetal hyaline cartilage model develops (from chondroblasts) 2) Cartilage calcifies and a periosteal bone collar forms around the diaphysis 3) Primary ossification center forms in the diaphysis and bone develops and replaces cartilage extending in both directions towards epiphyses 4) Secondary ossification center forms in the epiphyses 5) Bone replace cartilage, except the articular cartilage and epiphyseal plates 6) Epiphyseal plates ossify and turn into epiphyseal linesThe epiphyseal plate has 5 zones , 1 being closes to the epiphyses and 5 being closest to the diaphysis, what are they?1 - resting cartilage (chondrocytes) 2 - proliferating cartilage (undergoing mitosis) 3 - hypertrophic cartilage 4 - calcified/dead cartilage 5 - zone of ossificationWhich zone of the epiphyseal plate secures the epiphysis to it and resembles healthy hyaline cartilage?Zone 1In what zone of the epiphyseal plate are chondrocytes undergoing rapid mitotic cell division, enlarging, and stacking ontop of eachother into longitudinal columns of flattened lacunae?Zone 2What what zone of the epiphyseal plate are chondrocytes stopping dividing and starting to hypertrophy greatly? Lacunae walls are also becoming thin as chondrocytes resorb the matrixZone 3In what zone of the epiphsyeal plate is only a few cells thick and minerals are deposited in the matrix between lacunae to kill chondrocytes, making it appear opaque?Zone 4What zone of the epiphyseal plate are the walls breaking down between lacunae and forming channels that are invaded by capillaries and osteoprogenitor cells that deposit a new matrix of bone?Zone 5What kind of growth is a growth in length of bone? Where does it happen?Interstitial, epiphyseal plate where the zone of resting cartilage is pushed away from the diaphysisWhat happens at maturity until interstital growth stops?Epiphyseal cartilage production slows, osteoblast activity continues, epiphsyeal plate becomes narrower until it disappears and becomes compact boneWhat kind of growth is a growth in width of bone and where does it occur?Appositional, within the periosteum where osteoblasts lay down external circumferential lamellae that widen the structure as they increase in numberWhat happens as new bone is being laid down in appositional growth to avoid the bone from becoming completely solid/too thick and heavy?Osteolclasts along the medullary cavity resorb matrix to make the medullary cavity wider as the bone becomes widerWhat is bone remodeling? Where is it constantly occurring?The continual deposition of new bone CT and removal/resorption of old bone CT. At the periosteal and endosteal surfacesWhat does bone remodeling help maintain in body fluids?Calcium and phosphate levelsBlood vessels of bone penetrate the periosteum, what are the four major sets in long bone?Nutrient, metaphyseal, epiphyseal, periostealWhat controls and regulates bone growth and maintenance by altering osteoblast and osteoclast activity?Hormones from the endocrine systemWhat hormone is produced by the anterior pituitary and stimulates growth of somatomedin/insulin-like growth factors from the liver? What does this do?Growth hormone, Somatomedin stimulates growth of cartilage in the epiphsyeal plate (resulting in bone elongation)What two hormones are secreted by the follicular cells of the thyroid by TSH release from anterior pituitary?Triiodothyronin (T3), Thyroxine (T4)What do T3 and T4 do?Stimulate growth (and subsequently IGF) hormone, all together maintaining normal activity at growth plates until pubertyWhat hormone is secreted from the PARAfollicular cells of the thyroid in response to high levels of calcium in the blood? What does it do?Calcitonin, stimulates osteoblast activity and osteoid deposition, inhibits osteoclast. Takes calcium from blood and puts it into boneWhat hormone has the opposite activity of calcitonin? (takes calcium from bone and puts it into blood) where is it secreted from and in response to what?Parathyroid, secreted from chief cells in parathyroid in response to low calcium in blood. Stimulates osteoclast activityThe secretion of what sex hormones at puberty dramatically accelerates bone growth? How?Estrogen and testosterone, increases osteoblast activity in ossification zones of epiphsyeal platePuberty signals the beginning of the end for growth plates, because during this timeBone will eventually be produced faster than cartilage and epiphyseal plate will closeWhat group of hormones produced by the adrenal gland have no effect on bone mass if their levels are normal, but if they are too high for extended periods can lead to significant loss of bone mass?GlucocorticoidsWhat vitamin activates osteoblasts?Vitamin AWhat vitamin is required for normal synthesis of collagen?Vitamin CWhat vitamin stimulates absorption and transport of calcium and phosphate ions into blood from the digestive tract and is necessary for calcification of the bone?Vitamin DWhats the difference in absorption vs. reabsorption in regards to calcium?Absorption- from GI tract to blood Reabsorption- from bone back to bloodWhat has a huge effect on the strength of bone? (ie. with it the bone will increase its strength and without it demineralization will happen weakening bone)Mechanical stressIn response to mechanical stress bone willIncrease mineral deposition and collagen and calcitonin producedWhat is often the first sign of a bone tumor?A pathologic fractureWhat is the benign bone forming tumor that presents as cortical, interlacing microtrabeculae of woven bone?Osteoid osteomaWhat is the benign bone forming tumor that presents in posterior elements of the vertebra and looks similar to osteoid osteoma?OsteoblastomaWhat is the malignant bone forming tumor that extends from medulla to lift periosteum, malignant cells produce woven bone?OsteosarcomaWhat is the benign cartilage forming tumor that presents as a bony excrescence with a cartilage cap?OsteochondromaWhat is the benign cartilage forming tumor that presents as circumscribed hyaline cartilage nodule in the medulla?ChondromaWhat is the malignant cartilage forming tumor that extends from medulla through cortex into soft tissue, chondrocytes have increased cellularity and atypia?ChondrosarcomaWhat is the benign bone tumor of unknown origin that destroys the medulla and cortex and has sheets of osteoclasts?Giant cell tumorWhat is the benign bone tumor of unknown origin that affects the vertebral body with hemorrhagic spaces separated by cellular, fibrous septae?Aneurysmal bone cystWhat is the malignant bone tumor of unknown origin that presents as sheets of primitive small round cells?Ewing sarcoma