CHEM 123 - Chapter 6

Ionic Bonds
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SO₄²⁻What is the formula for Sulfate?PO₄³¯What is the formula for Phosphate?CN¯What is the formula for Cyanide?NH₄⁺What is the formula for Ammonium?NO₂⁻What is the formula for Nitrite?SO₃²⁻What is the formula for Sulfite?PO₃³⁻What is the formula for Phosphite?- first write the positive ion, usually a metal - write the name of the polyatomic ion secondHow do you name Ionic Compounds containing Polyatomic Ions?- first nonmetal in the formula is named by its element name - second nonmetal is named using the first syllable of the name followed by -ide.How do you name Molecular Compounds? (two nonmetals linked by a covalent bond)monoPrefix: 1diPrefix: 2triPrefix: 3tetraPrefix: 4pentaPrefix: 5hexaPrefix: 6heptaPrefix: 7octaPrefix: 8nonaPrefix: 9decaPrefix: 10Electronegativityan atom's ability to attract the shared electrons in a chemical bond - increases from left to right going across a period on the periodic table - decreases going down a group on the periodic tableNonpolar Covalent BondElectronegativity difference between 0.0 and 0.4Polar Covalent BondElectronegativity difference between 0.5 and 1.8increasesA polar covalent bond becomes more polar as the difference in electronegativity ________________.DipoleWhat is the separation of charges in a polar bond called?Ionic BondElectronegativity difference greater than 1.8Nonpolar CovalentElectrons shared equallyPolar CovalentElectrons shared unequallyIonicElectrons transferredLinearThe shape with two electron groups around the central atom is ______________Trigonal PlanarThe shape with three electron groups around the central atom is _______________BentThe shape with two bonds and a lone pair on the central atom is _____________TetrahedralThe shape with four bonds on the central atom is called ___________________Trigonal PyramidalThe shape with three bonds and a lone pair on the central atom is called ___________________Dispersion forcesWeak attractions between non polar molecules2.1What is the electronegativity: Hydrogen (H)2.5What is the electronegativity: Carbon (C)3.0What is the electronegativity: Nitrogen (N)3.5What is the electronegativity: Oxygen (O)4.0What is the electronegativity: Fluorine (F)3.0What is the electronegativity: Chlorine (Cl)2.8What is the electronegativity: Bromine (Br)2.5What is the electronegativity: Iodine (I)2.0What is the electronegativity: Boron (B)2.1What is the electronegativity: Phosphorus (P)2.5What is the electronegativity: Sulfur (S)2.4What is the electronegativity: Selenium (Se)dipole-dipole attractionsIn covalent compounds, polar molecules exert intermolecular forces called _________________________.Hydrogen BondsIn covalent compounds, polar molecules form strong dipole attractions called ____________________ between hydrogen atoms bonded to F, O, or N.Dispersion Forces- weak attractions between non polar molecules - caused by temporary dipoles that develop when molecules bump into each other - weak but make it possible for non polar molecules to form liquids and solids