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Radical Republicans

congressmen who favored using federal power to rebuild the South and promote African-American rights


period from 1865 to 1877 in which the U.S. Government attempted to rebuild Southern society and government

Freedmen's Bureau

federal agency set up to help former enslaved people

Andrew Johnson

Democrat who became president after Lincoln was assassinated

black codes

laws that limited the freedom of former enslaved people

14th Amendment

constitutional amendment that made all people born in the U.S. (including former slaves) citizens


white Southern who supported Radical Reconstruction


Northerner who went to the South after the Civil War to participate in Reconstruction


offical pardon

civil rights

rights guaranteed to all citizens


to formally accuse the president of misconduct in office


to prevent from becoming a law

freedmen's school

school set up to educate newly freed African-Americans


system under which landowners gave poor farmers seeds, tools, and land to cultivate in exchange for part of their harvest

Ku Klux Klan

secret group that used violence to try to restore Democratic control of the South and keep African-Americans powerless


to kill without a trial


large farm that raises cash crops

15th Amendment

constitutional amendment that stated that citizens could not be stopped from voting "on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude"

Panic of 1873

financial panic in which banks closed and the stock market crashed

Compromise of 1877

agreement that decided the 1876 presidential election

stock market

place where share of ownership in companies are bought and sold


time of low business activity and high unemployment


settlement of differences in which each side gives up something it wants

Ulysses S. Grant

former Union general

electoral votes

votes made by the members of the Electoral College, which elects the president and vice president


former alteration or addition to the U.S. Constitution

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