This was the period right after the revolutionary war in which America faced economic, political and social chaos and attempted to define itself as a strong country.
He was the Superintendent of Finance in 1781 who tried to bring about the Bank of North America
Bank of North America
This was Morris's plan of a coherent program of taxation and debt management regulated by a congressionally chartered ___.
This state blocked the Bank of North America proposal by being the only state to refuse to ratify it. It worried that it would help lead to a powerful central government.
This was a coup d'etat that was planned by Morris and his followers. They attempted to gain the support of Washington and the army to overthrow the old government and allow a more centralized and strong one to take hold. Washington refused to be a part of it though, as he felt it set a dangerous precedent.
Ordinance of 1785
This did several things in the congress-controlled Old West. It established a survey method based on township and range, and divided each township into 6 x 6 square miles. Then, it sold each section for no less than a dollar and provided funds for the 16th section to be used for public education.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
This provided a specific means by which the territories could become states. First they were subject to a Congress-appointed governor, secretary, and 3 judges. Once the population reached 5,000, it could elect an assembly from which electees Congress would appoint a council. Then once the population reached 60,000, the territory could apply for statehood. This also required each new state to form a constitution with a bill of rights, and it banned slavery from the territories until a newly-formed state decided otherwise.
Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations
this inspired the desire for free trade amongst both the British and the Americans.
Boom and Bust Economy
The high demand for British goods along with easy British credit created this cycle in America in which people would rack upa bunch of credit to buy British goods and then the British, fearful of not getting their money, stopped giving credit, forcing Americans to pay up and lose more money.
Bright Spots in the American Economy
- Smuggling helped offset the British Ban on American trade in British colonies
-Merchants opened up new markets in Asia and Europe
- trade exceeded that of the colonial period
Northern Border Diplomatic Struggle
Primarily with the British. They refused to withdraw from forts on the American border (as agreed to before) and used them as bases from which to encourage Indian attacks on Americans. Britain refused to exchange ambassadors with America and didnt cooperate with the American ambassador John Adams.
Problems British Had Diplomatically
-American citizens hadnt repaid debts to British merchants
-Congress hadnt protected loyalists who were trying to return home
Southern Border Diplomatic Struggle
Primarily with Spain. They maintained forts in American territory and encouraged Indian attacks against frontier settlers. Their problem was mainly border issues. They wanted the traditional border of the 32nd parallel while the Americans insisted on the 31st parallel as agreed to in the Treaty of Paris. Navigation of the Mississippi river was an issue as the Northwest territories would rely on this river for trade.
This was negotiated by the American ambassador John Jay and the Spanish ambassador Don Diego de Gardoqui. Spain refused to make concessions regarding navigation of the Mississippi river, but offered trade concessions beneficial to northern merchants. Southerners and Westerners denounced it as a sellout of their interests and refused to let it be ratified in congress.
Americans were resentful of the British closing of its colonial ports to Americans, but Congress lacked the authority to take action. Individual states enacted these but the lack of uniformity made it easy for British merchants to circumvent them. However North Carolina and Rhode Island blocked efforts to amend the Articles of Confederation to allow national action
This group of people joined the rally for a stronger national government because Congress lacked the authority to protect them from the importation of British goods. Most states gave preference to American made goods but again lacked the uniformity to frustrate British efforts.
Legal Tender Laws
These were voted for by debtors because they made state produced paper money legal, therefore they could pay the amount they owed in paper dollars, which were worth less than they actually owed.
people to whom money is owed who voted for hard currency rather than paper money and opted for no stay laws
This was enacted by Rhode Island after the Debtor Party took control of the state government. It made Rhode Island's paper money legal tender and required creditors to accept it. Refusal to do so would result in trial without jury and heavy fines once convicted.
Trevett vs. Weeden
This case rose to the Rhode Island Supreme court and was the first instance in which the court exercised judicial review and declared the Forcing Act unconstitutional. The legislature bowed to the verdict and repealed the act.
The Massachusetts policy of a tight money policy while continually raising taxes hit poor farmers the most, and a revolt broke out in the western counties. The militia routes the rebels out after a brief battle, but the propertied classes were worried and started to want a stronger central government.
Mount Vernon Conference
This was when representatives from Maryland and Virginia met to discuss issues of navigation in Chesapeake Bay. It proved so successful that the House of Burgesses called for a national assembly in Annapolis to discuss all issues of commerce.
only 5 delegates attended this, but success was snatched from failure when Hamilton asked those delegates to call for another assembly in Philadelphia that would be authorized to consider everything relative to making the federal constitution work for the Union.
55 delegates attended the Philadelphia convention at one point or another, with Rhode Island being the only state not to send anyone. These men in attendance were called this. They were surprisingly young but widely read on many subjects and were devoted to the ideas of liberty and republicanism.
Fundamental Points Founding Fathers Agreed On
1. legitimate government derives its just power from the consent of the governed.
2. society must be protected from tyranny-even the tyranny of majority rule
3. people must have a voice in their government
4. a system of checks and balances must be established for the prevention of tyranny
5. the nation required a stronger government
Virginia (Big State) Plan
Created by James Madison and was the first proposal for the structure of the new government and how each part would be chosen. It was geared more towards the bigger states' interests
New Jersey (Small State) Plan
created by William Paterson. This was the countering proposal to Madison's with regard to the structure of the new government. This plan was more geared towards protecting small states
This was Roger Sherman's plan that acted as a compromise between the Virginia and New Jersey Plan. It was in fact called the "Great Compromise"
This was the compromise between the North and South where it was agreed that slaves would count as 3/5 of a person when apportioning taxes and representation (The South had wanted them to count when apportioning representation but not taxation, while the North had wanted the opposite)
England- American Government correspondence
1. House of Commons: House of representatives
2. House of Lords: Senate
3. King: President
a system of checks and balances in the government. Included seperation of powers, veto by president, power of impeachment by congress, power to confirm treaties by senate, implied power of judicial review by the Supreme court, and retention of considerable power by the states.
Ratification System of the New Constitution
the old way was ratification by unanimous vote, and this way would be for only 9 states to ratify and a popularly elected assembly would vote, rather than state legislators (which were thought to have a bias as they wouldn't want to relinquish much of their powers)
Advocates of the Constitution; were better organized and were mainly the people who'd handled it very much before. The leaders included Hamilton, Madison, and Jay.
the name given to the people against ratification of the new Constitution. The leaders of this group were Patrick Henry and Richard Henry Lee.
Charles A. Beard
wrote An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution, but his thesis was denounced later on due to new research
An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution
This said that the Federalists' reasons for wanting a stronger government were rooted in economic interests. it argued that most of the leaders had wealth primarily in paper money, rather than landed wealth and therefore would benefit by the stronger, stable government. This was debunked, though, as further research indicated that most of the founding fathers' wealth was in land and property, not paper money.
this was wealth based off of depreciated government securities; consisted of creditors whose wealth was mainly paper money
wrote We the People: The Economic Origins of the Constitution and proved that Beard's thesis did not work
We the People: The Economic Origins of the Constitution
this was written to debunk Beard's theory. It noted that James Madison- who was the founding father of the constitution- owned virtually no personalty and some of his most outspoken opponents were large holders of paper wealth.
Jackson Turner Main
came up with the idea of localists versus cosmopolitans. Localists were more rural and poorly educatedand saw little to gain from interstate commerce while cosmopolitans were urban, urbane, and well-educated and saw that an expansive land policy was critical to the growth of the nation's financial and international standing.
This was a collection of essays originally printed in New York by James Madison, John Jay, and Alexander Hamilton under the collective name of "Publius". Through these essays they hoped to encourage ratification of the constitution and defend the idea of a supreme national authority
This was the most famous of the essays in which Madison refuted traditional political philosophy that a republic could only work in a small homogeneous society by saying that a large size and diversity would keep any one faction from forming a majority that would take control of the government.
Bill of Rights
Anti-Federalists pointed out with alarm that this was missing from the constitution and was needed to spell out the rights of both the people and the states.
What both Anti-federalists and federalists agreed on
- the country needed a stronger national government
-the central government must have the power to levy taxes
-people must erect safeguards against tyranny
How Ratification of the Constitution Happened
Federalists easily won the approval of the required 9 states, but they faced the battle of getting Virginia and New York to accept the constitution as well (As both were crucial to the economy and functionality of the country as a whole). Virginia finally accepted on the grounds that the first act of Congress be to draft a Bill of Rights. North Carolina only ratified once the Bill of Rights was actually in place and Rhode Island held out the longest.
Congress created these to serve as the advisers to the president.There were 4 and the president appointed men to fill these positions during his term, and this became the presidential cabinet (which the Constitution had made no provisions for, but became a precedent anyway)