the level of international relations that deals with leaders
the level of international relations that deals with states themselves
the level of international relations dealing with power struggles for dominance
the level of international relations dealing with relations between states
the level of international relations dealing with world cycles of conflict
conflict (Kenneth Boulding)
a situation of competition in which parties are aware of the incompatibility of potential futures positions and in which each party wishes to occupy a position that is incompatible with the wishes of the other
the devotion to the interests of one's own nation over the interests of other states. It usually involves a large group of people who share a national identity and often a language, culture, or ancestry
a policy directed at incorporating all the members of a nationality into a single polity (from the Italian for unredeemed)
penetrated political system (James Rosenau)
a political system in which non-members of the society participate in making authoritative decisions for that society (ex. US to other countries)
Bretton Wood System
post WWII economic system established to prevent extreme forms of economic nationalism
identity belonging to a group which speaks the same language, shares much of the same ancestry, and is incorporated into the same culture
Ethnocentric regimes often justify the justice of their cause by invoking collective rights based on the asserted superiority of the group in question ( who's view?)
ethnocentric regimes that become sovereign states
wrote "The Clash of Civilizations" and argues that the incompatibility of absolute Truths in religious conflict create the potential of conflictual post-Cold War international relations.
a system of beliefs that explains and justifies a preferred political order, either existing or proposed, and offers a strategy (institutions, processes and programs) for its attainment.
Wrote The Leviathan and believed that "The life of a man is solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short. Considered aggression to be part of human nature
wrote Lord of the Flies, a story about agressive human nature
believed aggression came from the clash of the "id" (the pleasure principle), and the "superego" (moral conscience) being resolved or not within the "ego" (reality principle)
wrote African Genesis and The Territorial Imperative. Like Raymond Dart, he believes that we are the direct evolutionary descendants of instinctual killer apes.
wrote The Naked Ape and, like Konrad Lorenz, noted that humans engage in intraspecific conflict-we kill each other, which is different from most other species which engage in interspecific conflict.
man who blames economics for human aggression
man who blamed WWI (imperialism-the highest state of capitalism) on increased competition among capitalists for decreasing numbers of markets.
R. Ted Gurr
considered frustration as a source of aggression
graph mapping frustration caused by difference in reality and aspirations
frustration is caused by technology increasing at a rate faster than our ability to absorb it
"the father of modern international law", wrote The Law of War and Peace
Karl von Clausewitze
said "War is the coninuation of politics by other (violent) means
the relative level of destruction caused or potentially caused by the armaments and military personnel involved
the mobilization of all a belligeren't resources, material and human, for the war effort
the goal of __ war is to control the enemy's territory and government --unconditional surrender
war that is often positional in character where territorial change is usually the goal. May be quite intense
fought by belligerents coming from the same country
what enemies of call guerilla warfare
Call terrorism a form of "violent leverage"
the use of unorthodox means of violence for political purposes
terrorists demonstrate the destruction in a locality to a much wider audience through media.
"guns or butter"
this view of war holds the opinion that if the state spends money on militaries, it doesn't spend it on "people programs"
the transfer of money from military spending to increased social programs and lower taxes
the most important lessons of contemporary warfare: command, control, communication, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance.
concepts in great power thinking
the "principle of mass", "economy of force", flexible response", "projectability of force"
mutually assured destruction
Cold War principle of deterence between Russia and US
regimes that prevent states possessing WMD techology from transferring it to a third, usually souther state; non-possessors of the the technology foreswear future possession
one state, one vote observed in the General Assembly and ECOSOC
Any tendency or propensity of individuals towards other individuals
the activiation of collective security provisions of the UN charter. Korean War and Persain Gulf War
the interventing of the UN forces(blue berets), once conflicting powers have agreed to cease fire and withdraw to stipulate positions
the intervention of the secretay general or his associates as a mediator in disputes
giving functional organzations such as PIUs and (IPUs) an umbrella under which to build habits of cooperation
the practive of UN intervention in a regional crisis which might escalate to a confrontation between great(nuclear) powers -- Dag Hammerskjold
Economic and Social Council of the UN
consists of 5 permanent members(Britain, China, Russia, US, France) with veto power, and 10 rotating members
Consists of all UN members, 1 state 1 vote(Hague Principle)
UN general assembly plenary sessions
occasion for heads of government of foreign ministers to exchange info and get to know one another on a personal basis
Concert of Europe
special responsiblity of greatest powerse(security council)
ECSC (European Coal and Steel Community)
1952, to improve steel production and end needless competetion among coal and steel producing states, west germany, france, italy, belgium, luxembourg, netherlands created this
either the process toward or the end product of the unification of soverign political entities
they believe that complex interdependence would happen mechanically
believed that regional insitution building must be planned, and managed so that each institution would necessitate another in order to operate (spillover effect)
Treaty of Rome
1958-created the eurropean economic community(EEC) which established a free trade zone. made a common external tariff
Single European act
1986--destroyed the remaining barriers to the free flow of goods, services, labor, and capital among the expanding membership
Treaty of Maastricht
1991--called for a common foreign and security policy as well as a european monetary union which was the forerunner of full implementation of the Euro Zone
Treaty of Nice
2001-- established standards for union expansion, leading to the present membership of 27
Council of Europe
promotes democratic and human rights as embodied as embodied in the europan convention on human rights.
European court of human rights
the most important organ of the council of europe
European Council aka Council of European Union
composed of the heads of governments of member states and meets twice. is arguably the institution with the greatest political power
despite the fact that international collective civil law systems, a legislative body, executive enforcement, and a judiciary, do not exist. most international law is scrupulously observed