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individual level

the level of international relations that deals with leaders

domestic level

the level of international relations that deals with states themselves

hegemonic level

the level of international relations dealing with power struggles for dominance


the level of international relations dealing with relations between states

global level

the level of international relations dealing with world cycles of conflict

conflict (Kenneth Boulding)

a situation of competition in which parties are aware of the incompatibility of potential futures positions and in which each party wishes to occupy a position that is incompatible with the wishes of the other


the devotion to the interests of one's own nation over the interests of other states. It usually involves a large group of people who share a national identity and often a language, culture, or ancestry


a policy directed at incorporating all the members of a nationality into a single polity (from the Italian for unredeemed)

penetrated political system (James Rosenau)

a political system in which non-members of the society participate in making authoritative decisions for that society (ex. US to other countries)


economic nationalism

Bretton Wood System

post WWII economic system established to prevent extreme forms of economic nationalism

ethnic identity

identity belonging to a group which speaks the same language, shares much of the same ancestry, and is incorporated into the same culture

Sabrina Ramet

Ethnocentric regimes often justify the justice of their cause by invoking collective rights based on the asserted superiority of the group in question ( who's view?)


ethnocentric regimes that become sovereign states

sectarian conflict

religious conflict

Samuel Huntington

wrote "The Clash of Civilizations" and argues that the incompatibility of absolute Truths in religious conflict create the potential of conflictual post-Cold War international relations.


a system of beliefs that explains and justifies a preferred political order, either existing or proposed, and offers a strategy (institutions, processes and programs) for its attainment.

Thomas Hobbes

Wrote The Leviathan and believed that "The life of a man is solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short. Considered aggression to be part of human nature

William Golding

wrote Lord of the Flies, a story about agressive human nature

Sigmund Freud

believed aggression came from the clash of the "id" (the pleasure principle), and the "superego" (moral conscience) being resolved or not within the "ego" (reality principle)

Robert Audrey

wrote African Genesis and The Territorial Imperative. Like Raymond Dart, he believes that we are the direct evolutionary descendants of instinctual killer apes.

Desmond Morris

wrote The Naked Ape and, like Konrad Lorenz, noted that humans engage in intraspecific conflict-we kill each other, which is different from most other species which engage in interspecific conflict.

Karl Marx

man who blames economics for human aggression

V.I. Lenin

man who blamed WWI (imperialism-the highest state of capitalism) on increased competition among capitalists for decreasing numbers of markets.

R. Ted Gurr

considered frustration as a source of aggression

J curve

graph mapping frustration caused by difference in reality and aspirations

anomic violence

revolutionary violence

technology hypothesis

frustration is caused by technology increasing at a rate faster than our ability to absorb it

Hugo Grotius

"the father of modern international law", wrote The Law of War and Peace

Karl von Clausewitze

said "War is the coninuation of politics by other (violent) means


the relative level of destruction caused or potentially caused by the armaments and military personnel involved

total war

the mobilization of all a belligeren't resources, material and human, for the war effort

total war

the goal of __ war is to control the enemy's territory and government --unconditional surrender

limited war

war that is often positional in character where territorial change is usually the goal. May be quite intense

Civil Wars

fought by belligerents coming from the same country


what enemies of call guerilla warfare


Call terrorism a form of "violent leverage"


the use of unorthodox means of violence for political purposes


terrorists demonstrate the destruction in a locality to a much wider audience through media.

"guns or butter"

this view of war holds the opinion that if the state spends money on militaries, it doesn't spend it on "people programs"

peace dividend

the transfer of money from military spending to increased social programs and lower taxes


the most important lessons of contemporary warfare: command, control, communication, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance.

concepts in great power thinking

the "principle of mass", "economy of force", flexible response", "projectability of force"

mutually assured destruction

Cold War principle of deterence between Russia and US

non-proliferation regimes

regimes that prevent states possessing WMD techology from transferring it to a third, usually souther state; non-possessors of the the technology foreswear future possession

Hague Principle

one state, one vote observed in the General Assembly and ECOSOC

Lateral Pressure

Any tendency or propensity of individuals towards other individuals

Peace Enfocing

the activiation of collective security provisions of the UN charter. Korean War and Persain Gulf War

Peace Keeping

the interventing of the UN forces(blue berets), once conflicting powers have agreed to cease fire and withdraw to stipulate positions

Peace making

the intervention of the secretay general or his associates as a mediator in disputes

Peace Building

giving functional organzations such as PIUs and (IPUs) an umbrella under which to build habits of cooperation

Preventive diplomacy

the practive of UN intervention in a regional crisis which might escalate to a confrontation between great(nuclear) powers -- Dag Hammerskjold


Economic and Social Council of the UN

Security Council

consists of 5 permanent members(Britain, China, Russia, US, France) with veto power, and 10 rotating members

General Assembly

Consists of all UN members, 1 state 1 vote(Hague Principle)

UN general assembly plenary sessions

occasion for heads of government of foreign ministers to exchange info and get to know one another on a personal basis

Concert of Europe

special responsiblity of greatest powerse(security council)

ECSC (European Coal and Steel Community)

1952, to improve steel production and end needless competetion among coal and steel producing states, west germany, france, italy, belgium, luxembourg, netherlands created this


either the process toward or the end product of the unification of soverign political entities


they believe that complex interdependence would happen mechanically


believed that regional insitution building must be planned, and managed so that each institution would necessitate another in order to operate (spillover effect)

Treaty of Rome

1958-created the eurropean economic community(EEC) which established a free trade zone. made a common external tariff

Single European act

1986--destroyed the remaining barriers to the free flow of goods, services, labor, and capital among the expanding membership

Treaty of Maastricht

1991--called for a common foreign and security policy as well as a european monetary union which was the forerunner of full implementation of the Euro Zone

Treaty of Nice

2001-- established standards for union expansion, leading to the present membership of 27

Council of Europe

promotes democratic and human rights as embodied as embodied in the europan convention on human rights.

European court of human rights

the most important organ of the council of europe

European Council aka Council of European Union

composed of the heads of governments of member states and meets twice. is arguably the institution with the greatest political power

Hans Morgenthau

despite the fact that international collective civil law systems, a legislative body, executive enforcement, and a judiciary, do not exist. most international law is scrupulously observed

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