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asexual reproduction

the production of genetically identical offspring from a single parent

sexual reproduction

offspring inherit some genetic material from each parent


genetic information package

prokaryotic chromosome

one chromosome in each prokaryote


complex of chromosome and protein

G1 Phase

Cells grow and synthesize new proteins

S phase

DNA is synthesized - chromosomes are regulated

G2 Phase

Organelles required for for division are produced

M Phase

mitosis, following interphase


A protein in cells that regulates the cell cycle

internal regulators

group of proteins responding to events occurring inside a cell

growth factors

an external regulator that stimulates the growth and division of cells


programmed cell death


a disorder in which body cells lose the ability to control growth


a mass of cancerous cells


The process by which cells become specialized, determining cellular identity


a stem cell able to develop into any type of cell in the body


a hollow ball of cells with a cluster of cells inside called the inner cell mass


cells that can develop into most cell types

stem cells

the unspecialized cells from which differentiated cells develop


they can develop into some types of differentiated cells

homologous chromosomes in meiosis

each of the four chromosomes from the male parent has a corresponding chromosome from the female parent

adults diploid cells contain

two complete sets of inherited chromosomes and two complete sets of genes


cells that contain only a single set of chromosomes


the process by which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell

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