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Cell Division (Chapter 10)

STUDY
PLAY
asexual reproduction
the production of genetically identical offspring from a single parent
sexual reproduction
offspring inherit some genetic material from each parent
chromosome
genetic information package
prokaryotic chromosome
one chromosome in each prokaryote
chromatin
complex of chromosome and protein
G1 Phase
Cells grow and synthesize new proteins
S phase
DNA is synthesized - chromosomes are regulated
G2 Phase
Organelles required for for division are produced
M Phase
mitosis, following interphase
cyclin
A protein in cells that regulates the cell cycle
internal regulators
group of proteins responding to events occurring inside a cell
growth factors
an external regulator that stimulates the growth and division of cells
apoptosis
programmed cell death
cancer
a disorder in which body cells lose the ability to control growth
tumor
a mass of cancerous cells
differentiation
The process by which cells become specialized, determining cellular identity
totipotent
a stem cell able to develop into any type of cell in the body
blastocyst
a hollow ball of cells with a cluster of cells inside called the inner cell mass
pluripotent
cells that can develop into most cell types
stem cells
the unspecialized cells from which differentiated cells develop
multipotent
they can develop into some types of differentiated cells
homologous chromosomes in meiosis
each of the four chromosomes from the male parent has a corresponding chromosome from the female parent
adults diploid cells contain
two complete sets of inherited chromosomes and two complete sets of genes
haploid
cells that contain only a single set of chromosomes
Meiosis
the process by which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell