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A dog's salivation at the sight of a food dish is a

unconditional response

Classical conditioning occurs most rapidly when the learner perceives the ___ to cause the ___.


Little Albert developed a fear of rats after a white rat was presented with a loud noise. The loud noise was the

unconditioned stimulus

An experimenter plans to condition a dog to salivate to a light by pairing the light

1/2 seconds before food

Garcia and Koelling's findings on taste aversion in cats challenged the previously accepted principle that

ucs must immediately follow the cs for conditioning to occur

The initial stage of classical conditioning during which a response to a neutral stimulus is established and gradually strengthened is called


Who was the first to emphasize that psychology should be restricted to the scientific study of observable behavior?


Long after being bitten by a stray dog, Allen found that his fear of dogs seemed to have disappeared. To his surprise, however, when he was recently confronted by a stray dog, he experienced a sudden twinge of anxiety. This sudden anxiety best illustrates:

spontaneous recovery

A patient who had long feared going into elevators was told by his therapist to force himself to go into 20 elevators a day. The therapist most likely wanted to encourage the ___ of the patient's fear.


Two-year-old Philip was recently clawed by the neighbor's cat. Philip's newly developed tendency to fear all small animals demonstrated the process of:


If a ringing bell causes a dog to salivate because the bell has been regularly associated with food in the mouth, the UCR is the

salivation to the food in the mouth

John B. Watson emphasized that

learning should be explained without any reference to mental processes

In Aldous Huxley's 'Brave New World', infants develop a fear of roses after roses are presented with electric shock. In this fictional example the presentation of the roses is the

unconditioned stimulus

The most crucial ingredient in all learning is


For the most rapid acquisition of a CR, the CS should be presented

shortly before the UCS

Pavlov's research on classical conditioning was important because

so many different species of animals, including humans, can be classically conditioned

In Pavlov's experiments on the salivary conditioning of dogs, a CR was

salivation to sound of tone

In Pavlov's experiments on the salivary conditioning of dogs, the CS, was

the sound of a tone

Some of Pavlov's dogs learnd to salivate to the sound of one particular tone and other tones. This illustrated the process of


After recovering from a serious motorcycle accident, Gina was afraid to ride a motorcycle but not a bicycle. Gina's pattern of fear best illustrates:


The reappearance, after a time lapse, of an extinguished CR is called

spontaneous recovery

Skinner discounted the role of ___ in learning

cognitive processes or punishment

Latent learning can occur in the absence of


Learning associations between one's own personal actions and resulting events is most relevant to the process of

operant conditioning

The introduction of an unpleasant stimulus is to ___ as the withdrawal of an unpleasant stimulus is to ___.


Masako was hit with a basketball last week during practice and now refuses to play. This behavior illustrates effects of

punishment or delayed reinforcers

The lowest rates of operant responding are associated with the ___ schedule of reinforcement

variable interval

Classical conditioning is to ___ associations as operant conditioning is to ___ associations

stimulus-stimulus, response-stimulus

Which of the following behaviors is typically reinforced on a variable-ratio schedule?

inserting coins in slot machine

Some psychologists believe that rats develop mental representations of mazes they have explored. These representations have been called:

cognitive maps

The fact that rats can learn the layout of a maze while passively riding through it in a wire basket highlights the importance of

cognitive processes

Which of the following decreases the recurrence of the behavior it follows?


Dr. Raheja places a rat in a small, glass-enclosed chamber where it learns to press a bar to obtain a food pellet. Obviously, Dr. Raheja is using a ___ to study learning.

skinner box

BF Skinner recommended that we control behavior with ___ rather than with ___.

reinforcement, punishment

Ever since his mother began to give Julio gold stars for keeping his bed dry all night, Julio discontinued his habit of bedwetting. His change in behavior best illustrates the value of:

operant conditioning

A variable-interval schedule of reinforcement is one in which a response is reinforced only after a(an):

unpredictable time period has elapsed

Most psychologists think that the use of punishment is:

less effective than positive reinforcers in promoting desirable behavior

When the Zantays eat dinner, the family dog begs for food, sometimes, but not always, the children give in to the dog's begging and pass their pet a tasty morsel. You will most justify in predicting that:

the dog is eventually going to stop begging for food

The use of online tesing is most likely to involve an application of ___ primary (whatever the rest says)

latent learning or operant conditioning

What is the greates danger associated with using small bribes to entice children to (something) good books?

overjustification effect

The study of response-stimulus associations is to___ as the study of stimulus-stimulus associations is to_____.

Skinner; Pavlov

Julie has a glass of wine after work because it relieves her anxiety. Her wine drinking is likely to continue because it is followed by a ___ reinforcer.


A small-town radio disc jockey frequently announces how much money is currently in the jackpot. Every day several residents, randomly selected, are called and asked to identify the amount, and thereby win it. Those who keep track of the jackpot amount are most likely to be reinforced on a ____ schedule.

variable-interval or fixed - interval

Reinforcement is to operant conditioning as___ is to observational learning

respondent or modeling

Bandura's experiments indicate that____ is important in the process of learning:


Rapid changes in memes best illustrate the impact of:

respondent or observational learning

Pavlov is to classical conditioning as ___ is to____

skinner; latent learning

Mr. Zandee has stopped smoking because he wants to model healthy behavior patterns for his kids. Mr. Zandee is apparently aware of the importance of ____ in his kids development.

observational learning

Money is to food as ____ is to____

secondary reinforcer; primary reinforcer

Children exposed to a model who preached one thing and did another:

said what the model said and did what the model did.

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