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50 terms

Chapter 8 Test

STUDY
PLAY
A dog's salivation at the sight of a food dish is a
unconditional response
Classical conditioning occurs most rapidly when the learner perceives the ___ to cause the ___.
ucs-ucr
Little Albert developed a fear of rats after a white rat was presented with a loud noise. The loud noise was the
unconditioned stimulus
An experimenter plans to condition a dog to salivate to a light by pairing the light
1/2 seconds before food
Garcia and Koelling's findings on taste aversion in cats challenged the previously accepted principle that
ucs must immediately follow the cs for conditioning to occur
The initial stage of classical conditioning during which a response to a neutral stimulus is established and gradually strengthened is called
acquisition
Who was the first to emphasize that psychology should be restricted to the scientific study of observable behavior?
Watson
Long after being bitten by a stray dog, Allen found that his fear of dogs seemed to have disappeared. To his surprise, however, when he was recently confronted by a stray dog, he experienced a sudden twinge of anxiety. This sudden anxiety best illustrates:
spontaneous recovery
A patient who had long feared going into elevators was told by his therapist to force himself to go into 20 elevators a day. The therapist most likely wanted to encourage the ___ of the patient's fear.
shaping
Two-year-old Philip was recently clawed by the neighbor's cat. Philip's newly developed tendency to fear all small animals demonstrated the process of:
generalization
If a ringing bell causes a dog to salivate because the bell has been regularly associated with food in the mouth, the UCR is the
salivation to the food in the mouth
John B. Watson emphasized that
learning should be explained without any reference to mental processes
In Aldous Huxley's 'Brave New World', infants develop a fear of roses after roses are presented with electric shock. In this fictional example the presentation of the roses is the
unconditioned stimulus
The most crucial ingredient in all learning is
experience
For the most rapid acquisition of a CR, the CS should be presented
shortly before the UCS
Pavlov's research on classical conditioning was important because
so many different species of animals, including humans, can be classically conditioned
In Pavlov's experiments on the salivary conditioning of dogs, a CR was
salivation to sound of tone
In Pavlov's experiments on the salivary conditioning of dogs, the CS, was
the sound of a tone
Some of Pavlov's dogs learnd to salivate to the sound of one particular tone and other tones. This illustrated the process of
discrimination
After recovering from a serious motorcycle accident, Gina was afraid to ride a motorcycle but not a bicycle. Gina's pattern of fear best illustrates:
discrimination
The reappearance, after a time lapse, of an extinguished CR is called
spontaneous recovery
Skinner discounted the role of ___ in learning
cognitive processes or punishment
Latent learning can occur in the absence of
cognition
Learning associations between one's own personal actions and resulting events is most relevant to the process of
operant conditioning
The introduction of an unpleasant stimulus is to ___ as the withdrawal of an unpleasant stimulus is to ___.
acquisition-extinction
Masako was hit with a basketball last week during practice and now refuses to play. This behavior illustrates effects of
punishment or delayed reinforcers
The lowest rates of operant responding are associated with the ___ schedule of reinforcement
variable interval
Classical conditioning is to ___ associations as operant conditioning is to ___ associations
stimulus-stimulus, response-stimulus
Which of the following behaviors is typically reinforced on a variable-ratio schedule?
inserting coins in slot machine
Some psychologists believe that rats develop mental representations of mazes they have explored. These representations have been called:
cognitive maps
The fact that rats can learn the layout of a maze while passively riding through it in a wire basket highlights the importance of
cognitive processes
Which of the following decreases the recurrence of the behavior it follows?
punishment
Dr. Raheja places a rat in a small, glass-enclosed chamber where it learns to press a bar to obtain a food pellet. Obviously, Dr. Raheja is using a ___ to study learning.
skinner box
BF Skinner recommended that we control behavior with ___ rather than with ___.
reinforcement, punishment
Ever since his mother began to give Julio gold stars for keeping his bed dry all night, Julio discontinued his habit of bedwetting. His change in behavior best illustrates the value of:
operant conditioning
A variable-interval schedule of reinforcement is one in which a response is reinforced only after a(an):
unpredictable time period has elapsed
Most psychologists think that the use of punishment is:
less effective than positive reinforcers in promoting desirable behavior
When the Zantays eat dinner, the family dog begs for food, sometimes, but not always, the children give in to the dog's begging and pass their pet a tasty morsel. You will most justify in predicting that:
the dog is eventually going to stop begging for food
The use of online tesing is most likely to involve an application of ___ primary (whatever the rest says)
latent learning or operant conditioning
What is the greates danger associated with using small bribes to entice children to (something) good books?
overjustification effect
The study of response-stimulus associations is to___ as the study of stimulus-stimulus associations is to_____.
Skinner; Pavlov
Julie has a glass of wine after work because it relieves her anxiety. Her wine drinking is likely to continue because it is followed by a ___ reinforcer.
negative
A small-town radio disc jockey frequently announces how much money is currently in the jackpot. Every day several residents, randomly selected, are called and asked to identify the amount, and thereby win it. Those who keep track of the jackpot amount are most likely to be reinforced on a ____ schedule.
variable-interval or fixed - interval
Reinforcement is to operant conditioning as___ is to observational learning
respondent or modeling
Bandura's experiments indicate that____ is important in the process of learning:
modeling
Rapid changes in memes best illustrate the impact of:
respondent or observational learning
Pavlov is to classical conditioning as ___ is to____
skinner; latent learning
Mr. Zandee has stopped smoking because he wants to model healthy behavior patterns for his kids. Mr. Zandee is apparently aware of the importance of ____ in his kids development.
observational learning
Money is to food as ____ is to____
secondary reinforcer; primary reinforcer
Children exposed to a model who preached one thing and did another:
said what the model said and did what the model did.