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Romantic test--music history
Terms in this set (95)
a new focus on the individual and on the expression of the self in extremes. Objective reality, preoccupation with the mysticism, transcendentalism, escapism, and the exotic.
from the German, meaning world-pain or world-weariness, is a term coined by the German author Jean Paul and denotes the kind of feeling experienced by someone who understands that physical reality can never satisfy the demands of the mind.
(1797-1828) composer who took composition lessons from Salieri, went to boarding school in Vienna. Most known for his songs, and later in his life, symphonies. Strove to make music equal to words, link between literature and music. Died young (age 31) of syphilis. Winterreise (1827), Erlkonig (1815), Gretchen am Spinnrade (1814),
German song, often set in cycles, made popular by Schubert.
a song by Schubert that uses modified strophic form. About a boy and his father who are being followed by a mystical creature who eventually kills the boy. Uses expressive imagery!
(1827) Song cycle by Schubert, translates to "Winter's Journey. Poetry by Muller. Contains song "Der Lindenbaum"
A gathering in a private home during which Schubert would play piano and either sing his own songs or accompany a singer.
Symphony no. 8 Unfinished
A symphony by Schubert (1822) with only two completed movements. Originally planned as a four-movement work in b minor. Romantic Classicism, lyrical melodies
a form for poems with a single image/mood. Each verse has the same music.
Modified strophic form
a form that is sometimes repeated for some strophes, but uses variation.
a form that uses new music for every line of poetry
(1810-1856) an influential music critic and composer, especially of the piano, songs, chamber music, and symphonies. Was a pianist, son of a writer so he had an intense interest in literature. Suffered an injury to the right hand that ended his performing career, so he turned to composition and writing about music. Focused on one medium at a time, known for his strange behavior, hallucinations, and multiple personalities that resulted in a suicide attempt in 1854. Sent ot an asylum near Bonn, died in 1856. Carnaval
Clara Wieck Schumann
(1819-1896) Wife of Robert Schumann, and later a relationship with Johannes Brahms, she was a pianist, composer, and teacher. Known for piano compositions
Song cycle bu Robert Schumann, only one mood per song. Contains "Im wunderschonen Monat Mai" about blossoming new love.
(1834-5) piece written for piano by Robert Schumann. Depicts a masquerade ball in carnival season through 20 short pieces in dance rhythms each names for people in his life, including his own personalities (Eusebius and Florestan) as well as others like Clara and Coquette. Programmatic music
Symphony no. 4
(1851) This work represents Robert Schumann's most radical thinking of the symphony. Conceived work as one continuous flow. Each movement includes themes related to the main melody of the slow introduction making this a unified cycle. Can be thought of as a single extended sonata form over four movements.
(1810-1849) Composer most closely identified with the piano, Born near Warsaw to a French father and a polish mother. Later moved to Paris, and entered the highest social circles, played at private salons, affair with George Sand. Died of tuberculosis. Known especially for mazurkas and nocturnes (nocturne no. 2 in D-flat maj--1835)
stylized Polish dance that had become popular during Chopins time. 3/4 time, accents on beat three.
Polish dance that Chopin composed
A short mood piece, usually for piano, with beautiful embellished melodies above sonorous accompaniments. Chopin's were influenced by John Field who invented the genre. Introspective and used a lot of rubato
(1811-1886) Virtuosic pianist, conductor, and composer. Devised new playing techniques and textures for the piano as well as innovations in form and harmony as well as inventing the symphonic poem. German, studied with Czerny and Salieri in his youth, invented the concept of a solo recital and music from memory. Music director at Weimar where he encouraged new music performances as well as building the classical rep.( 3 concert etudes--1845-9)
(1782-1840) Italian virtuoso violinist who influenced Liszt.
(1809-1847) Composer, pianist, organist, and conductor. Combined romantic expression with classical forms and techniques. Comes from a very musical and rich family. Jewish, converted to Christianity later in life. Sister Fanny also a composer. Octet for strings, overture to midsummer night's dram. Music director at Dusseldorf and later leipzig. Died after a series of strokes
Symphony no. 4 "Italian"
(1833) a symphony by Mendelssohn that celebrates the sunny and vibrant south with a slow movement suggesting a procession of chanting pilgrims and a finale that suggest dancing. Classical Romanticism present
(1803-1869) French composer who wrote "the bible of orchestration" (Treatise on Orchestration). Played flute and guitar, never piano. Went to med school, but dropped out to study composition. Won the Prix de Rome in 1830. Obsessed with theater, and Harriet smithson who inspired Symphony fantastique (1830) Also a music critic and conductor. Known for programmatic nature of his works and idee fixe.
(1830) symphony by Berlioz while he was still a conservatory student. Dwells on his thoughts and passions for Harriet Smithson. Contains and idee fixe that is present in each of the five movements. He describes this work as "an episode in the life of an artist" and provided an autobiographical program. Movements are 1. Dreams and passions, 2. A ball, 3. In the country, 4.) March to the Scaffold, and 5. Dream of a Witches Sabbath.
fixed idea or obsession--a melody that Berlioz used in each movement to represent the obsessive image of the hero's beloved, transforming it to suit the mood and situation at each point in the story of symphony fantastique.
Harold in Italy
(1834) Berlioz's second symphony that draws its title from Lord Byron's poem, Childe Harold's Pilgrimage and it's substance from recollections of the composer's sojourn in Italy. The piece features a solo viola, but less prominently than a concerto. Paganini commissioned the work as a show piece, then refused to play it. A recurring theme in the viola appears in each movement and is combined with other themes.
Treatise on Orchestration
Berlioz writes about his orchestration technique which featured vivid harmony, melody, and colors.,
an opera house north of Bayreuth, Germany, dedicated solely to the performance of operas by Richard Wagner
(1813-1901) Italian composer of 26 operas, including Nabucco, Macbeth, Rigoletto, and La Traviata. Studied music as a child, was a church organist by age 9. Music director in Busseto.
Musical characterization, dramatic unity, and melodic invention unite in this opera by Verdi. Central characters are delineated by contrasting styles.
Late opera by Verdi (1879) Uses reminiscence motives in the orchestra. Continuous flow from aria to recitative, orchestra becomes more important.
(1863-1945) late Italian composer of a one act opera called Cacalledria Rusticana. Example of Verismo
(1858-1919) late Italian Composer of Pagliacci in 1892. Example of Verismo.
(1858-1924) Most successful Italian opera composer after Verdi. Son of a church organist and composer. Wrote Le villi, Manon Lescaut, and Madama Butterfly. Interested in realism. Focus on vocal melody, but used leitmotives.
style of opera that lies between comique and grand opera. Main appeal is melody, and subject matter is usually romantic drama or fantasy. Medium scale work
Most famous lyric opera by Charles Gounod and is the most frequently performed opera in the last 3rd of the 19th century.
(1819-1880) Founder of opera bouffe, wrote can can.
(1833-1897) German composer that wrote everything but opera. Born in Hamburg, studied cello, piano, and horn as a child. Praised by Schumann, prominent conductor. 4 symphonies, 2 piano concertos, violin concerto, 200 lieder, etc.
(1831-1907) virtuosic violinist that worked with Brahms.
Continuous development/developing variation
composition technique of presenting a melody, then continuously building on germinal ideas. Term coined by Schoenberg.
(1806-1903) composer who adapted Wagner's methods to the German Lied. Wrote other works, but known for lied.
compositional technique devised by Liszt provides unity, variety, and narrative-like logic to a composition by transforming the thematic material to reflect the diverse moods needed to portray a prograammatic subject, follows the lead of symphony fantastique.
(1864-1949) German composer and conductor, held positions in Munich, Weimar, Berlin, and Vienna. Known especially for his tone poems (his term for symphonic poems) his operas, and his lieder. Programs based on literature, Don Juan, Macbeth, etc. Heavily influenced by Wagner.
A piece by Strauss that uses variation form and instruments as individual characters.
Symphonia domestica, and Ein Heldenleben by Strauss
Das Lied von der Erde
(1908) by Mahler, called the Song of the Earth, high point of late works. Called "a symphony for a tenor voice, and an alto or baritone voice, and orchestra". Six movements alternate soloists. Text translated from Chinese, dream-like whirl.
literally "beautiful singing"--a term that Rossini and others used only in retrospect to contrast the Italian singing style of the 18th century.
(1792-1868) Italian composer known for his operas. Was a violist, pianist, and singer at the Bologna Conservatory. Director of the Teatro San Carlo in Naples where he wrote The Barber of Seville. Wrote opera in French (Guillaume Tell) in 1829. He has a crescendo technique named after him!
Barber of Seville
Considered Rossini's most famous opera. This opera combines features of opera buffa with the bel canto tradition. Main character is a barber
Italian opera house in Paris dedicated to performing Italian works
Scena (ed aria)
scene of an opera
First, lyrical portion of an Italian aria
Tempo di Mezzo
a middle portion connecting the two big sections (Cantabile and cabaletta) is called the...
Second, lively and brilliant section of an Italian Aria
(1801-1835) younger contemporary of Rossini, Italian composer known for opera, he wrote ten. Norma (1831) Casta Diva is the entrance aria.
( 1831) Opera by Bellini. Uses his long, sweeping, highly embellished, and intensely emotional melodies. The entrance aria is Casta Diva (chaste goddess)
(1797-1848) Italian composer known for his opera, though he wrote many other works for voice. La fille du Regiment (1840) Lucia di Lammermoor (1835)
Lucia di Lammermoor
(1835) opera by Donizetti that offers the first example of transparent continuity of recitative and aria. Based on a novel by Sir Walter Scott. Has the mad wedding scene, employs a reminiscence motive
opera designed to appeal to the newly well-to-do middle class audience who were now attending the opera. This type of opera is as much spectacle as it is music
French word for "the opera"
type of french comic opera that uses spoken dialogue instead of recitative. Less grand in scale
(1791-1864) director of the Paris opera with Eugene Scribe, was also a composer. Robert the Devil and Les Huguenots (1836)
(1791-1861) Librettist to Meyerbeer and also a director of the Paris opera. Robert the Devil and Les Huguenots (1836)
(1836) a typical french grand opera by Meyerbeer, librettist Scribe, in five acts with an enormous cast, a ballet, dramtic scenery, and lighting effects. Plot is based on events leading to St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre of 1572.
Carl Maria von Weber
(1786-1826) German composer known for Romantic opera. Der Freishutz (1821) Wolf's glen scene
(1821) opera by Weber. Wolf's glen scene. Melodrama
harkening back to an earlier theme or motive, like in Lucia's mad scene recitative
(1813-1883) German composer known especially for his contribution to opera. Emphasis on music as a servant to the drama, used leitmotives as an organizing principal. Born in Leipzig. Antisemitist, fled to Switzerland and wrote the ring cycle and Tristan und Isolde. 13 operas also include Lohengrin, Meistersingers, and Tannhauser.
A motive Wagner uses and attaches to a person, place, or emotion. It occurs throughout the opera, often changing mood to reflect the drama.
Term Wagner uses to describe the absolute oneness of drama and music--that the two are organically connected expressions of a single dramatic idea. Poetry, scenic design, staging, action, and music work together.
Artwork of the future
(1850) Essay by Wagner that discusses Beethoven as the peak of instrumental work. The 9th symphony is the path to the future by joining music and words. Wagner describes himself here as Beethoven's true successor.
Opera and Drama
Der Ring des Nibelungen
(1848-1852) A cycle of four dramas by Wagner. Wagner wrote the libretto himself. Employs leitmotive, endless melody, the fusion of music and drama
Tristan und Isolde
(1857-59) Late opera by Wagner. Influenced by Schopenhauer, endless melody, breaks any tonal expectation
(1788-1860) Philosopher whose pessimistic views gained influence after the failed revolutions of 1848. In an essay, "The World as Will and Representation", he argues that music was the one art that embodied the deepest reality of all human experience--our emotions, our drives--and could, therefore, give immediate expression to these universal feelings and impulses in concrete, definite form without the intervention of words. Heavily influenced Wager
Concise Italian style of opera
(1853) Mature opera by Verdi. First tragic opera to be set in the present time, is the plot of Moulin Rouge
Italian word meaning true, an operatic parallel to realism in literature
is an opera in one act by Pietro Mascagni to an Italian libretto by Giovanni Targioni-Tozzetti and Guido Menasci, adapted from a play and short story written by Giovanni Verga. Considered one of the classic verismo operas, it premiered on 17 May 1890, at the Teatro Costanzi in Rome. Verismo style
opera by Mascagni in 1892 about clowns. Verismo style. Often paired with Cavalleria Rusticana in performance
1904 opera by Puccini. Employs exoticism of Japan and China.
(1818-1893) French opera composer, wrote Faust. Also romeo and juliette.
type of French opera that emphasizes the smart, witty, and satirical elements of comic opera. Lighter fare, founded by Offenbach
Orpheus in the Underworld
(1858) comic opera by Offenbach, uses a can can dance for the gods.
(1825-1904) Music critic, wrote "On the Musically Beautiful". He claimed that music should be understood and appreciated on its own terms rather than for its ties to anything outside music, and that music content is inseparable from form. On the Brahms side of debate
(1824-1896) Composed orchestral music in the style of Wagner. Devout Catholic, schooled in counterpoint and served at Linz, and later Vienna as a church organist. Wrote nine symphonies, and religious choral music.
Symphonic poem/tone poem
One movement work for orchestra with programmatic meaning.
also sprach Zarathustra
Musical commentary on Nietzsche's long prose poem, which proclaimed that Christian ethic should be replaced by the idea of a superman who is above good and evil. Is in a space odyssey
(1860-1911) leading Austro-German composer of symphonies after Brahms and Bruckner, one of the great masters of the song for voice and orchestra. Born to Jewish parents in Bohemia, univeristy of Vienna, Students with Hugo Wolf and Bruckner. Composed in the summer, between seasons of conducting. Symphony as the world,
Songs on the death of Children (1901-4) orchestral song cycle on poems by Ruckert, set to music by Mahler.
breaking tonal expectations
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