CLP 4134 Exam 1

feral child
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Terms in this set (65)
personal or situational variables that reduce the chances for a child to develop a disorder
- associated with strong self confidence, coping skills, ability to avoid risk situations, and ability to fight off or recover from misfortune
- resiliency toward a stressful environment and ability to achieve positive outcomes despite significant risk for psychopathology (not a fixed attribute and can vary based on types of stress, context, and similar factors)
- poverty is associated with greater rates of learning impairments and problems in school achievement, conduct problems, violence, chronic illness, hyperactivity, and emotional disorders
- poverty has a significant, but indirect, effect of children's adjustment, likely due to its association with other negative influences like poor parenting and exposure to numerous daily life stressors
- temperament: the child's organized style of behavior that appears early in development, which shapes the child's approach to his or her environment
- a subset of personality, so it is often considered an early building block of personality
- three dimensions of temperament are linked to normal and abnormal child development
fearful or inhibited- "slow to warm up child - cautious in his or her approach to novel or challenging situations. such children are more variable in self regulation and adaptability and may show distress or negativity toward some situationsnegative affect or irritability"Difficult Child" - predominantly negative or intense in mood, arrhythmic, not very adaptable. Some show distress when faced with novel or challenging situations; others prone to general distress or irritabilityparental temperamentequifinality definitionOne symptom can have many causesmultifinality definitionVarious outcomes may stem from similar beginningsediologythe cause of a disease or conditionefficacythe ability to produce a desired or intended result - controlled resultseffectivenessA measure of the appropriateness of the goals an organization is pursuing and the degree to which the organization achieves those goals. - real word conditionssensitive period of developmentbrain plasticity-malleability the brains anatomical differentiation is use- dependent - nature provides the basic processes whereas nurture provides the experiences needed to select the most adaptive network of conditions, based on the use and functions of eachecological model- shows the richness and depth of the various layers of a childs environment by portraying it as a series of nested and interconnected structuresreinforcement- positive or negative - any actions that increase the target responsepunishmentused to decrease a responseclassical conditioning-explains the acquisition of deviant behavior on the basis of paired associations between previously neutral stimulioperant conditioning- a type of learning which behaviors are acquired or changed as a result of particular consequences - children are quite accomplished at learning the contingencies between their behavior and its consequencesresearch cycle1. theory/ previous research - hypothesis/ predictions - general approach to research 2. identify the sample - selecting measures -research design and procedures 3. data collection - data analysis - interpretation of findings then back to the topcorrelationreliability definition- the consistency or repeatability of results obtained using a specific method of measurementinternal consistencyrefers to whether all parts of a method of measurement contribute in a meaningful way to the information obtainedinterrater reliabilitythe degree to which different observers agree on their observationstest-retest reliabilitytests or interviews repeated within a short time interval should yield similar results on the two occasionsvalidity definitionthe extent to which it actually measures the dimension or construct that the researcher sets out to measureface validitythe extent to which is appears to assess the construct of interest - ex: questionnaire that asks whether you get nervous before taking an exam would be a face valid measure of anxiety, where as one that asks if you think you are a parrot does notconstruct validity- refers to whether scores on a measure behave as predicted by theory or past research - ex: a test of intelligence has construct validity if children who obtain high scores on the test also have better grades in school, understanding of concepts, verbal reasoning, recall, and parent rating of intelligence than do children who obtain low scores on the testconvergent validityreflects the correlation between measures that are expected to be related - ex: a teens report of her depression in a screening interview and her scores on a depression scalediscriminant validitydegree of correlation between measures that are not expected to be related to one anothercriterion related validity- refers to how well a measure predicts behavior in setting where we would expect it to - ex: a child's high score on a measure of social anxiety should predict that the child would display anxiety or avoidance in current social situations and will perhaps have difficulties making friends in the futuremediation model definitionExplains the relationship between 2 other variables - education is a mediator because it may explain why there is a relationship between self exam of cancer and social status -removing education means that this relationship no longer existsmoderation model definitionA third variable that changes the nature of a relationship between the original independent and dependent variablesexperimental researchretrospective design- sample of people is identified at the current time and asked for information relating to an earlier time - individuals are identified who already show the outcome of interest and they are compared with controls who do not show the outcome.longitudinal studythe same participants are studied at different ages or periods of development - data collection occurs at specified points in time from the same individuals initially selected because of their membership in one or more populations of interest - allows researchers to identify patterns that are common and track differences - cons: obtaining and maintaining research funding and resources over many years and the long wait for meaningful data - design difficulties relate to aging effects and cohort effectsqualitative researchfocuses on narrative accounts, description, interpretation, context, and meaning - purpose is to describe, interpret, and understand the phenomenon of interest in the context in which it is experiencequantitative researchresearch that collects and reports data primarily in numerical formresearch must be...voluntary - especially for childrenconsent vs assent- consent requires that all participants be fully informed of the nature of the research, as well as the risks, benefits, expected outcomes, and alternatives - assent means that the child show some form of agreement to participate without necessarily understanding the full significance of the researchmulti method assessment- the clinical assessment of children experiencing difficulties rely on this approach - emphasizes the of obtaining info from different informants in a variety of settings and using a variety of methods that include interviews, observations, questionnaires, and testsstructured interviewobservation of a subject, usually occurring in a clinic or lab, in which the subject is given specific tasks or instructions to carry out and researchers look for specific infounstructured interview- provide a rich source of clinical hypothesis - - their lack of standardization may result in low reliability and selective pr biased gathering of infonaturalistic observationobserving and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situationfunctional assessmentA type of behavioral assessment used to determine functional relations between challenging behavior and environmental events - the goal is to identify as many factors as possible that could be contributing to a child problem behaviors, thoughts and feelings and to develop hypotheses for the factors that are most important and or the most easily changedneuropsychological test definition- attempts to link brain functioning with objective measures of behavior known to depend on an intact central nervous systemchild social history assessment- history of developing relationship with peers, family memberdiagnostic labels- provide treatment plans - how we define a certain problem - have to find the problem before we are able to intervene - common languagecriteria for intellectual disabilitya significant limitation in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior which begins before age 18 - deficits in intellectual functioning - concurrent deficits in adaptive functioning - below average intellectual and adaptive abilities must be evident prior to age 18eugenics movement- intellectual and social problems of children with mental retardation were viewed as regression to an earlier period in human evolution - eugenics: the science dealing with all influences that improve the inborn qualities of a race - led to the view that all individuals with ID were threats to a societyiq testsstandardized - iq is relatively stable over time flynn effect: the phenomenon that IQ scores have risen about three points per decadeorganic groupsintellectual disability stemming from clear organic (physical)causes such as a brain damage or improper cns developmentfamilial groupsID in which there is no evidence of organic brain damage (usually associated with mild ID)prader williams syndromeinvoluntary urge to eatneurotoxic substances to ID- infections - traumas - accidental poisonings - fetal alcohol syndrome - teratogens increase risk of IDdown sydromemost common ID from chromosomal abnormalitiesmore sever IDare likely organicbehavioral intervention techniques- ABA to control or redirect negative behaviors - similar to approaches for externalizing problems in children w/o ID can be usedIDEAThe Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is a law that makes available a free appropriate public education to eligible children with disabilities throughout the nation and ensures special education and related services to those children.