Chapter 11 - Information System Development and Programming Languages

Vocabulary from Discovering Computers Fundamentals 2011 Edition
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Terms in this set (...)

.NET
Microsoft's set of technologies that allows almost any type of program to run on the Internet or an internal business network, as well as stand-alone computers and mobile devices
4GL
Fourth-generation language; nonprocedural language that enables users and programmers to access data in a database
Ajax
Asynchronous JavaScript and XML. Method of creating interactive Web applications designed to provide immediate response to user requests
analysis phase
Step in system development that consists of two major activities: (1) conduct a preliminary investigation, and (2) perform detailed analysis
API
Application programming interface; collection of tools that programmers use to interact with an environment such as a Web site or operating system
application generator
Program that creates source code or machine code from a specification of the required functionality
assembly language
Programming language in which a programmer writes instructions using symbolic instruction codes
ATOM
XML application used by content aggregators to distribute content to subscribers
benchmark test
Test that measures the performance of hardware or software
beta
Program that has most or all of its features and functionality implemented
bugs
Program errors
C
Programming language developed by Dennis Ritchie in the early 1970s at Bell Laboratories used for business and scientific applications
C#
Object-oriented programming language based on C++ developed primarily by Anders Hejlsberg at Microsoft
C++
Object-oriented programming language developed at Bell Laboratories that is an extension of the C programming language
case control structure
Type of selection control structure that can yield one of three or more possibilities
change management
Skill required for project leaders so they can recognize when a change in a project has occurred, take actions to react to the change, and plan for opportunities because of the change
COBOL
COmmon Business- Oriented Language. Programming language designed for business applications, which evolved out of a joint effort between the United States government, businesses, and major universities in the early 1960s
code snippets
Prewritten code and templates associated with common programming tasks
compiler
Separate program that converts an entire source program into machine language before executing it
computer program
Series of instructions that directs a computer to perform tasks
computer security plan
Written summary of all the safeguards that are in place to protect an organization's information assets
control structure
Used during program design, a depiction of the logical order of program instructions
custom software
Software that performs functions specific to a business or industry, developed by a user or at a user's request
Delphi
Powerful visual programming tool that is ideal for large-scale enterprise and Web application development
design phase
Phase of the system development cycle that consists of two major activities: (1) if necessary, acquire hardware and software and (2) develop all of the details of the new or modified information system
developer
Employee who converts the system design into the appropriate computer language, such as Visual Basic, Java, C#, and C+
direct conversion
Conversion strategy where the user stops using an old system and begins using a new system on a certain date
documentation
Collection and summarization of data and information
Dreamweaver
Web page authoring program by Adobe Systems that allows Web developers to create, maintain, and manage professional Web sites
dynamic HTML (DHTML)
Type of HTML that allows Web developers to include more graphical interest and interactivity in a Web page
Expression Web
Microsoft's Web page authoring program that enables Web developers to create professional, dynamic, interactive Web sites
entity-relationship diagram (ERD)
Systems analysis and design tool that graphically shows the connections among entities in a system
F#
Programming language included with Visual Studio 2010 that combines the benefits of an object-oriented language with the benefits of a functional language
feasibility
Measure of how suitable the development of a system will be to the company
feasibility study
Investigation that determines the exact nature of a problem or improvement and decides whether it is worth pursuing
Flash
Web page authoring program by Adobe Systems that enables Web developers to combine interactive content with text, graphics, audio, and video
hierarchy chart
Structure chart; Structured design tool that shows program modules graphically
HTML
Special formatting language that programmers use to format documents for display on the Web
IDE (integrated development environment)
Includes program development tools for building graphical user interfaces, an editor for entering program code, a compiler and/ or interpreter, and a debugger
implementation phase
Phase of the system development cycle during which the new or modified system is constructed, or built, and then delivered to the users. Four major activities performed include: (1) develop programs, (2) install and test the new system, (3) train users, and (4) convert to the new system
information system (IS)
Collection of hardware, software, data, people, and procedures that work together to produce quality information
interpreter
Program used to convert a source program into machine language and then executes the machine language instructions
IT consultant
Employee, typically hired based on computer expertise, who provides computer services to his or her clients
Java
Object-oriented programming language developed by Sun Microsystems
JavaScript
Interpreted language that allows a programmer to add dynamic content and interactive elements to a Web page
joint-application design (JAD)
Lengthy, structured, group meetings in which users and IT professionals work together to design or develop an application; aka focus groups
machine language
The only language a computer directly recognizes, using a series of binary digits or a combination of numbers and letters that represent binary digits
macro
Sequence of keystrokes and instructions that a user records and saves
maintaining
Act of correcting errors or adding enhancements to an existing program
multimedia authoring software
Software that allows users to combine text, graphics, audio, video, and animation in an interactive application and that often is used for computerbased training and Web-based presentations
nonprocedural language
Type of programming language in which a programmer writes English-like instructions or interacts with a graphical environment to retrieve data from files or a database
object-oriented programming (OOP) language
Programming language used to implement an object-oriented design
operation, support, and security phase
Phase of the system development cycle that consists of three major activities: (1) perform maintenance activities, (2) monitor system performance, and (3) assess system security
outsource
Having a source outside a company develop software for the company. Some companies outsource just the software development aspect of their IT operation, while others outsource more or all of their IT operation
packaged software
Massproduced, copyrighted retail software that meets the needs of a wide variety of users, not just a single user or company
parallel conversion
Conversion strategy where the old system runs alongside the new system for a specified time
Perl
Practical Extraction and Report Language; scripting language developed at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a procedural language similar to C and C++
phased conversion
Conversion strategy used by larger systems with multiple sites where each location converts at a separate time
phases
Categories into which system development activities are grouped: (1) planning phase, (2) analysis phase, (3) design phase, (4) implementation phase, and (5) support phase
PHP
Hypertext Preprocessor; free, open source scripting language
pilot conversion
Conversion strategy where only one location in an organization uses a new system - so that it can be tested
planning phase
Step in the system development cycle that begins when a steering committee receives a project request
PowerBuilder
Powerful program development RAD tool developed by Sybase that is best suited for Web-based, .NET, and large-scale enterprise object-oriented applications
preliminary investigation
Investigation that determines the exact nature of a problem or improvement and decides whether it is worth pursuing
procedural language
Type of programming language in which a programmer writes instructions that tell the computer what to accomplish and how to do it using a series of English-like words to write instructions
program development
Series of steps programmers use to build computer programs
program development life cycle (PDLC)
Series of steps programmers use to build computer programs, consisting of six steps: (1) analyze requirements, (2) design solution, (3) validate design, (4) implement design, (5) test solution, and (6) document solution
program development tool
Program that provides a userfriendly environment for building programs
programmer
Person who writes and modifies computer programs
programming language
Set of words, abbreviations, and symbols that enables a programmer to communicate instructions to a computer
programming team
A group of programmers that may develop programs during the program development cycle
project leader
Member of a project team who manages and controls the budget and schedule of the project
project management
Process of planning, scheduling, and then controlling the activities during the system development cycle
project management software
Application software that allows a user to plan, schedule, track, and analyze the events, resources, and costs of a project
project manager
Member of a project team who controls the activities during system development
project request (request for system services)
Written, formal request for a new or modified system
project team
Group of people that consists of users, the systems analyst, and other IT professionals
prototype
Working model of a proposed system
RAD
Rapid application development; method of developing software in which a programmer writes and implements a program in segments instead of waiting until an entire program is completed
repetition control structure
Type of control structure that enables a program to perform one or more actions repeatedly as long as a certain condition is met
Rexx
REstructured eXtended eXecutor. Procedural interpreted scripting language for both professional programmers and nontechnical users
RSS 2.0
Really Simple Syndication. Specification that content aggregators use to distribute content to subscribers
scope
The goal, required activities, time estimates for each activity, cost estimates for each activity, order of activities, and activities that can take place at the same time during system development
scripting language
Interpreted language that typically is easy to learn and use
selection control structure
Type of control structure that tells the program which action to take, based on a certain condition
sequence control structure
Type of control structure that shows one or more actions following each other in order
SharePoint Designer
Web page authoring program that is part of the Microsoft Office and SharePoint families of products
source program
Program that contains the language instructions, or code, to be converted to machine language
SQL
Query language that allows users to manage, update, and retrieve data in a relational DBMS
standards
Sets of rules and procedures a company expects employees to accept and follow
steering committee
Decision-making body in a company
system
Set of components that interact to achieve a common goal
system developer
Person responsible for designing and developing an information system
system development
Set of activities used to build an information system, including planning, analysis, design, implementation, and support
system development life cycle (SDLC)
Collection of phases in system development
system proposal
Document that assesses the feasibility of each alternative solution and then recommends the most feasible solution for a project
systems analyst
Person responsible for designing and developing an information system
Tcl
Tool Command Language; interpreted scripting language maintained by Sun Microsystems Laboratories
third-generation language (3GL)
Type of programming language in which a programmer writes instructions that tell the computer what to accomplish and how to do it using a series of English-like words to write instructions
training
Showing users exactly how they will use new hardware and software in a system
users
Anyone who communicates with a computer or utilizes the information it generates
value-added reseller (VAR)
Company that purchases products from manufacturers and then resells these products to the public - offering additional services with the product
VBScript
Visual Basic, Scripting Edition; subset of the Visual Basic language that allows programmers to add intelligence and interactivity to Web pages
visual programming environment (VPE)
Graphical interface in a visual programming language that allows programmers to drag and drop objects to develop programs
visual programming language
Programming language that uses a visual or graphical interface for creating all source code
Visual Studio
Suite of program development tools from Microsoft that assists programmers in building programs for Windows, Windows Mobile, or operating systems that support Microsoft's .NET framework
Web page authoring software
Software used to create Web pages that include graphical images, video, audio, animation, and other special effects with interactive content
WML
Wireless markup language; subset of XML that allows Web developers to design pages specifically for microbrowsers
XHTML
Extensible HTML; markup language that enables Web sites to be displayed more easily on microbrowsers in smart phones and other mobile devices, as well as on desktop and notebook computers
XML
Extensible Markup Language; format for sharing data that allows Web developers to create customized tags, as well as use predefined tags, used for developing a single Web site whose content can be formatted to display appropriately on various devices
extreme project management
team-driven project management approach, in which a project leader is more of a participant and facilitator than a manager during the project.
project plan
Record of project elements, including goal, objectives, and expectations of the project; required activities; time estimates for each activity; cost estimates for each activity; order of activities; and activities that can take place at the same time
Gantt chart
bar chart develop by Gantt L. Gantt that is uses horizontal bars to show project phases or activities; popular tool used to plan and schedule the time relationships among project activites
PERT chart
tool used to plan schedule time; Developed by U.S. Department of Defense; short for Program Evaluation and Review Technique chart
class diagram
graphically shows classes and subclasses in a system
data dictionary
stores the data item's name, description, and other details about each data item.
data flow diagram (DFD)
tool that graphicallly shows the flow of the data in a system
decision table
table that lists a variety of conditions and the actions that correspond to each condition
object
item that can contain both data and the procedures that read or manipulate that data
object modeling
Object-Oriented (OO) analysis and design. Combines the data with the process that on that data into a single unit called an object
process modeling (structured anlysis and design)
anlysis and design technique that describes processes tht transforms inputs into outputs
project dictionary (respiratory)
contains all the documentation and deliverables of a project
UML (Unified Modeling Language)
standard notation for object modeling and development.
used case diagram
graphically shows how actors interact with the information system
attribute (property)
each data element in an object
Operantion (method)
procedure in the object that contains the activities that read or manipulate the data
abrupt cutover
Conversion strategy where the user stops using an old system and begins using a new system on a certain date
acceptance test
Test performed by end-users during the program development cycle that checks the new system to ensure that it works with actual data
actor
User or other entity such as a program represented in a use case diagram
adaptive maintenace
Operation, support, and security phase process of including new features or capabilities in an information system
chief security officer (CSO)
Employee responsible for physical security of an organization's property and people; in charge of security computing resources
computer aided-software enginereering (CASE)
software tools desighned to support one or more activities of the system development cycle, typically including diagrams to support both process and object modeling
contex diagram
top level DFD that identifies only major porcesses
corrective maintaenance
Operation, support, and security phase process of diagnosing and correcting errors in an information system
cost/benefit feasibility (econimic feasiblity)
Measure of whether lifetime benefits of a proposed information system will be greater than its lifetime costs
data conversion
converting existing manual and computer files so a new computer system can use them
data flow
Element in a DFD, indicated by a line with an arrow, that shows the input or output of data or information into or out from a process
data model
rules and standards that define how a database organizes data
data store
Element in a DFD, indicated by a rectangle with no sides, that is a holding place for data and information
decision trees
graphic representation showing a viriety of conditions and the actions that correspond to each condition
deliverable
any tangible item such as a chart, diagram, report, or program file
detailed analysis (logical design)
Activity in the system development cycle that involves three major activites:
1. study how the current system works
2. determine the users' wants
3. recommend a solution
electronic magazine (E-zine)
publication available on the Web
entity
object in a system that has data
horizontal market software
Packaged software that meets the needs of many different types of organizations
I-CASE (CASE workbench)
integrated case products.
inheritance
concept of lower levels inheriting methods and attributes of higher levels in a class diagram
inspection
formal review of any system development delivarable
integration test
test performed during the program development cycle that verifies an application works with other applications
International Computer Security Association (ICSA) Labs
Organization that provides assistance via the telephone or the Web to organizations and individuals that need help with computer security plans
Internet solutions prdovider
company that provides Web hosting services that include managing shopping carts, inventory, and credit card processing
layout chart
technical chart that contains programming-like notations for data items
mockup
sample of the input or output that contains actual data
moderator
systems anlysts who acts as leader during a JAD session
operational feasibility
measure of how well a proposed information system will work
perfective maintenance
operation, support, and security phase process of manking an informantion system more efficent and reliable
performance monitoring
opereation, support, and security phase activity that determines whether a system is inefficient or unstable at any point
physical design (detailed design)
detailed design that specifies hardware and software- the phyical components resquired- for automated procedurs
post-implementation system review
operation, support, and security phase activity that involves holding a meeting to discover whether an informantion system is performing according to user's expectatins
process
element in a DFD, indicated by a circle, that transforms an input data flow into an output data flow
program specification package
item prepared during program design that identifies the require program and the relationship among each program, as well as the input, output, and database specifications
project notebook
record that contains all documntation for a single project
proof of concept (prototype)
working model of a proposed system
Rational Unified Process (RUP)
Popular methodology that uses the UML
request for information (RFI)
less than formal document sent to a vendor during the system development cycle that uses a standard form to request information about a product or service
request for proposal (RFP)
document sent to a vendor during the system development clycle where the vendor selects the product that meet specified requirements and then quotes the prices
request for quotation (RFQ)
document sent to a vendor during the system development cycle that identifies required products
schedule feasibility
measure of whether established deadlines for a project are reasonable
scope creep
problem that occurs when one activity has led to another that was not originaly planned, threby causing the project to grow
scribe
system development team member who records facts and action items assigned during a JAD session
source
element in a DFD, indicated by a square, that identifies an entity outside the scope of a system
structured English
sytle of writing that describes the steps in a processs; used to enter items in a project dictionary
subclasses
lower levels in a class diagram that inherit the methods and attributes of the objects in its higher-level class
systems test
test performed during the program development clycle that verifies all programs in an application work together properly
technical feasibility
measure of whether an organization has or can obtain the hardware, software, and people needed to deliver and then support a proposed information system
trade publication
magazine written for a specific business or industry
turnkey solution
complete systems offered by value-added resellers
unit test
test performed during the program developmeent cycle that veifies each individual program or object works by itself
use case
UML tool that graphically shows how actors interact with the information system
vertical market software
packaged software specifically designed for a particular business or industry
ActiveX
set of object-oriented technologies by Micrrosoft that allows components on a network to communicate with one another
ActiveX control
Small program that runs on a client computer, instead of the server
applet
Interpreted program that runs on a client, but is compiled
code review
Process of programmers, quality control testers, and/or peers reviewing code in order to locate and fix errors so that the final programs work correctly
coding
Translating a solution algorithm into a programming language and then typing the programming language code into the computer
counter
Web site element that tracks the number of visitors to a Web site
debugging
proscess of locating and correcting syntax and logic erros in a program
Director
Multimedia authoring program with powerful features that allow programmers to create highly interactive multimedia applications
flowchart
Program flowchart; graphically shows the logic in a solution algorithm
image map
Graphical image that points to one or more Web addresses
implementation
process of generating or writing code that translates a program design into a program and, if necessary, creating the user interface
logic error
Flaw in program design that causes inaccurate results
processing forms (forms)
Web site element that collects data from site visitors, who fill in blank fields and then click a button that sends the information
run-time error
Program error or event that causes the program to stop running
script
interpreted program taht runs on a client
servlet
applet that runs on a server
structured design
Top-down design; program design approach in which a programmer typically begins with a general design and moves toward a more detailed design
syntax
set of grammar and rules that specifies how to write instructions for a solution algorithm
syntax error
program error that occurs when the code violates the syntax, or grammar, of the programmng language
test data
sample data that mimics real data a program will process once it is in production
ToolBook
Multimedia authoring program with a graphical user interface that uses an object-oriented approach, so that programmers can design multimedia applications using basic objects
Visual Basic
based on the BASIC programming language
Visual C#
combines the programming elemts of C++ with an easir, rapid- development enviroment
Visual C++
programming language base on C++
algorithm
set of steps to help you compare one programming language with another
annotation symbol
Comment symbol; Flowchart symbol that explains or clarifies logic in a solution algorithm
ASCII file
File that does not contain any formatting, that is, no graphics, italics, bold, underlining, styles, bullets, shading, color, or any other type of graphical format
ASP.NET
Web application frame work that provides the tools necessary for the creation of dynamic Web sites
assembler
program used by programmers to convert assembly language source program into machine language
bytecode
Resulting object code in a Java program
cascading style sheet (CSS)
contains formats for how a particular object should be displayed in a Web browser
CGI (common gateway interface)
communications standard that defines how a Web server communicates with outside sources
CGI script
Program that manages the sending and receiving of data between the front and end of the database server
CLR (Common Language Runtime)
enviroment that enables programmers to develop .NET programs using a variety of languages
code
programming term meaning to write
comments
Internal documentation contained in a program
dead code
any program instructions that a program never executes
debugger
Debug utility; Utility that assists programmers with identifying sytax errors and finding logic errors
design tools
Tools such as pseudocode and program flowcharts that help programmers document a solution algorithm
desk check
Validation technique in which programmers use test data to step through a promgram's logic
document object model (DOM)
Format that defines every item on a Web page as an object, allowing developers to change properties, such as color or size, of any or all of the objects on a the Web page
do-until control structure
Type of repetition control structure similar to a do-while control structure, except it test the condition at the end of the loop and continues looping until the condition is true
do-while control structure
Type of repetition control structure that repeats one or more times as long as a condition is true
Eclipse
Open source, advance development environment that works with a variety of programs inlcuding Java and C++
elements
Tags; HTML words, abbreviations, and symbols that specify links to other documetns and indicate how a Web page is displayed when viewed on the Web
encapsulation
Concept of packaging data and procedures into a single object
event
An action to which a program responds
event-driven program
Program that checks for and responds to events
execute
Process of a computer carrying out the instructions in a program
extreme programming (XP)
strategy that proposed that programmers should immediatlely begin coding and testing solutions as soon as requirements are defined
form
Data entry form; Window on a screen that provides areas for entering or changing data in a database
funtional language
Programming language whose natural programming structure is useful in mathematical programs
global comments
Internal documentation, usually at the top of a program, that explains the program's purpose and identify the program name, its author, and date written
high-level language
Programming language in which each language instruction typically equates to multiple manchine instructions
if-then-else control structure
Type of selection control structure that yields only one of two possibiliteies: true or false
internal comments
Documentation that appears throughout the body of the program that explains the purpose of the code stements within the program
IPO chart
Chart that identifies a program's inputs, its outputs, and the processing steps required to transform the inputs into outputs
Java EE (Java Plattarform, Entrepirse Edition)
Set of technologies built on Sun's Java EE that allows programmers to develop and deploy Web services for a company, often used in Web 2.0 environments
Java Plataform, Micro Edition (Java ME)
Java platform used to create programs for smart phones and other mobile devices
Java Plataform, Stardard Edition (Java SE)
Java platform develop by Sun Microsytems to create stand-alone programs for desktop computers and servers
just-in-time (JIT) compiler
Program that converts bytecode into machine-dependent code that is executed immediately
keywords
command words used in programming
low-level language
programming language that is machine dependent
machine-dependent language
Programming language that runs on only one particular type of computer
manchine-independent language
Programming language that can run on many different types of computers and operating systems
macro (assembly language)
generates many machine languages instructions for a single assembly language instuction
macro recorder
Program develpment tool that records all actions until it is turn off.
main module
main routine; main funtion of a program
menu generator
application generator feature that enables users to create a menu for the application options
Microsoft Intermediate Language (MSIL)
resulting object code compiled by a .NET-compatible language
modules
Subroutines; smaller sections into which a main routine is broken down by a programmer during structered design
mouseover
mouse rollever; event that occurs when text, a graphic, or other object changes as the user moves the mouse pointer over an object on the screen
object code
Object programs; Machine language version of a program that results from compiling a 3GL source program
open language
term that refers to a language anyone can use without purchasing a license
posttest
Process used in a do-until control structure that tests a condition at the end of the loop
Practical Extraction and Report Language
Scripting language developed at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a procedural language similar to C and C++
pretest
Process used in a do-while control structure that tests a condition at the begining of the loop
program logic
solution algorithm; graphical or written descritpion of the step-by-step procedures to solve a problem
pseudocode
design tool that uses a condensed form of English to convey program logic
Rails (Ruby, RoR)
Ruby on Rails; open source frame work that provides technologies for developing object-oriented, database-driven Web sites
rapid application developments
Method of developing software in which a programmer writes and implements a program in segments instead of waiting until an entire program is completed
report writer
DBMS feasture that allows users to design a rport on the screen, retrieve data into the report design, and then display or print the report
style sheet
contains descriptions of a document's characteristics.
symbolic address
meaningful name used with assembly languages that identifies a storage location
symbolic instruction codes
meaningful abbreviations used with an assembly language
validate
check for accurancy
Visual Basic for Applictions (VBA)
programming language that allows programmers easily to built complex task-oriented object-based programs
XSL
Extensible Stylesheet Language; language for creating a style sheet that describes how to present the data described in an XML document on a Web page
XSLT
Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformation; extension of XSL that creates styles sheets that describe how to transform XSL documents into other types of documents
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