Interactive and dynamic process in which communicators simultaneously send and receive multiple overlapping messages
Anything that distracts participants from their communication
Flickering Lights, Coughing, Mics Squeal
Biological factors like illness
Internal Stress (In our heads)
Help determine meaning within a given context
Deliberate use of words that can be interpreted in more than one way "That new shirt is... different"
Socially acceptable terms in place of blunt words "Gone to a better place"
Degrees of imprecision. The less specific, the more abstract (camping, jewelry)
Degree of formality in a message construction
A text that is the same each time it is rendered. Archaic meaning found in ritual not words. More importance on actions.
Weddings, Funerals, Graduations, Anthems, Prayers
More Aspects of Frozen register
NO turn taking, clearly enunciated, audience preparation. Large signing space. GOALS - Unite, evoke reverence, and deliver proclamation
Register used when one speaker addresses a large group. No informal or spontaneous turn taking (limited/controlled). Slower rate, clear diction, well articulated. Enlarged signing space so all can see/hear.
Formal sentence structure is both compound and complex. Common to contain Frozen texts, passive voice, and rhetorical questions. May contain informal register or consultative register to "lighten the mood"
Register where one individual has expert status or enhanced command of a topic yet interacts with audience/receiver. Complete compound sentence structure that contains jargon. Unwritten turn-taking rules depend on personal style though there is a psychological separation due to expert status.
Consultative Register Part 1
Settings: Small group, interactions, interviews, hospitals. Rate of speech depends on physical settings and personality. Tend to be more conversational. Less physical distance so reduced signing space. Goals: teach, inform, instruct.
Register used by those with equal status. Sentences often truncated resulting in fragments. Frequent grammatical errors and slang terms. Often personal topics.
Informal Register Part 1
Fluid turn-taking. Interruptions are acceptable. Corrections can be made immediately. Close physical distance and touch is acceptable. Rapid rate of speaking with less precision. Significantly reduced signing space. Goals: tease, share, inquire
Register between individuals who have a shared history or experiential base influencing dynamics. topics may include "inside jokes".
Intimate Register Continued
Rapid turn-taking that is frequently incomplete. Absence of jargon, able to "read each other's mind". Some lexicon has personal meaning. Topics are mainly personal
Self Help for the Hard of Hearing
Offensive and negative term
American Sign Language ASL
Naturally occurring visual gestural language that adheres to linguistic rules. Incorporates facial grammatical markers, physical affect markers, spatial linguistic information, finger-spelling of signed lexicon, and is a distinct language not based on English.
Sign Supported Speech
Sign Supported Speech
Represents manual form of English (Manually coded English)
Each word is fingerspelled except for "and"
"Seeing Essential English" - 1996 by David Anthony. Signs for each word root/syllable. No consideration for conceptual accuracy. follows English word/grammar order. Offers Deaf opportunity to learn English in a visual form.
"Signing Exact English" by Gustason, Zawalkow, and Pfetzing. English signed in same manner as spoken English. Believes a sign should have only one English equivalent and used for all sentences regardless of meaning. Results in inappropriate conceptual message. Often uses stylized handshapes.
"2 out of 3 Rule" for SEE2
Sound, Meaning, and Spelling. If two of the three are present then it is acceptable.
"Signed English" - 14 sign markers added to represent English. Signs were invented for English words. Follows English sentence structure rather than ASL
"Conceptually Accurate Signed English" - Use of signs that are selected based on the meaning of the idea being conveyed. Meaning has primary importance and signs show concept. Has English word order and inaudible mouthing of words.
System of pantomimes, gestures, and manual signals.
Minimal Language Competency (socially acceptable)
Minimal Language Skills (socially acceptable)
Obsolete/negative term for minimal language skills
"High Visual Orientation" - No first language
Speech reading is a skill involving deciphering lip and mouth movements, clarifying gestures and contextual clues for meaning.
8 Hand-shapes for consonants and 4 positions near face for vowels. Every syllable is visible.
Usher's Syndrome Type 1
Born with hearing loss/balance problems, learn sign language, and then becomes blind
Ushers Syndrome Type 2
Mild hearing loss, learn speech communication before going blind
Communication with Deaf-Blind
1. Sign language at close distance 2. Tactile - Singing in hands 3. Finger-spelling on palsm
Changing of register from English based signs to ASL, Movement from ASL to English signs due to oppression
Taking signs from another location or country's sign language and using it
Perceptual framework based upon personal experience and cultural framework
Characteristics in forming schema
1. Physical - appearance based 2. Roles - Social positions 3. Interactions - Behavior/Personality 4. Psychological - Personal assessment 5. Memberships - Affiliations and groups
Faulty thinking leading to negative judgement, destructive behavior, racism, sexism, and agism
Unjust or excessive exercise of power and position that hurts others
Attitude causing negative stigma toward anyone unable to hear
Systematic exclusion of minority groups, removing a group's voice
Pathological View of Deaf People
Deaf are viewed as disabled, imperfect, and in need of fixing
Cultural view of Deaf People
Normal capable human beings encountering life in a different acceptable way
Have a pejorative view that difference is bad. Reciprocity of perspectives ("fix it mentality of others wanting to be like me")
Know it all feeling, desire to care, coddle, and take care of
"Conditioning" people to what is normal
Mixed feelings about being a minority
Frustration towards majority is taken out on own members of an oppressed group.
Tear down those who gain success or stand out
DPN Deaf President Now
1988 Gallaudet University
Trauma resulting from observing another's traumatic experience. Interpreter's may experience.
One who speaks out on issues on behalf of others. Hearing people are the "experts" and take on a leadership role resulting in minority oppression.
One who supports Deaf individuals in their own struggle for liberation
Book "The Interpreter: Machine, Advocate, or Ally?"
Written by Baker Shenk
Minority members use humor to persevere in the face of discrimination
Can Interpreters be Neutral?
Interpreter Neutrality is a MYTH
A-Language or L1
Language in which you are most fluent and capable of discussing topics
B-Language or L2
Refers to ones 2nd language learned
Choppy third language learned. Know very few words.
Taking the source language, identifying the meaning and intent, then using cultural transition, produce message in target language
Language in which the original message in conveyed
The language in which the original message in expressed by the interpreter
Time used to analyze source language utterance and produce it in the target language
Maintaining speaker's intended interaction and impact on the audience. Both hearing and Deaf audiences have the speaker's goals and involvement the same.
Taking a source language message, identifying the meaning and intent, and expressing the message in a different form of the SAME language. (English to Signed English)
Changing the message from Frozen form of one language to Frozen from in another
Changing a message from the Frozen form of one language into another signed or spoken language.
Channel through which a message is expressed. Specifically aural/oral or visual/gestural.
One who supports communication between individuals who have different languages.
Process of interpreting into the target language at the same time the source language is being delivered. Short processing time. Formal settings
Interpreting into the target language after the speaker completes one or more IDEAS in a source language. This is the most accurate form of interpreting. Normally used for one on one or small group settings.
Linguistic Range is informal or consultative. Most accurate form is consecutive interpreting.
Deaf are handicap and incapable of understanding. The interpreter's purpose is to help and take care of the Deaf. This mindset causes interpreters to be overly involved and see ASL as improper English
"Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf" - Established in 1964 (1st professional association of ASL interpreters)
Code of Ethics
8 principles designed to guide decisions made by interpreters in the field. Made in response to Helper role. Before there was an imbalance of power.
Robot-like role. Assume no responsibility for communication dynamics. Rigid and inflexible rules. View Deaf as needing to care always for themselves alone. Tend to be English only modality and view ASL as illegitimate. Confuses quantity of signs with quality. View themselves as a "verbatim" telephone wire.
Communication Facilitator Philosophy
View Deaf as handicap group seeking inclusion. Sees English as superior to ASL with ASL being for uneducated. However, more aware of importance of lighting, background, and visual noise. Emphasize change on appearance to have a "professional look." Still focus on quantity of signs over quality. Lack of equal access for the Deaf.
Interpreters are sensitive to physical communication dynamics, indicate who is speaking, place themselves appropriately. Aware of linguistic and cultural differences. Maintain dynamic equivalence, not word for word. This is the most appropriate philosophy to date (2015)
Way people react or engage to a message in conversation. Goal is to have same dynamic response.
Linguistic Expansion/Reduction and Cultural Expansion/Reduction - Require consecutive interpreting. (Make sure not to slip into helper philosophy)
Interpret implicit and explicit information
Provide contextual information needed to help understanding
Reducing volume of words or details without affecting meaning
Ethical Decision Making
Interpreters are NOT machines, however we do have an inherent power. We need to respect consumer's choice of modality and linguistic/cultural preference. We must understand the history of their oppression.
Rhythm of speech and pauses
Interpreter's first step...
Deriving meaning and dropping source language
Several parts or possible aspects of something
When a sign is repeated for clarity or emphasis
English - Assign items a category ASL- Give a list of items followed by "et cetera"
Provide information in an introductory "set up" to ensure proper schema. (Ex. English word "sewer" - ASL Couching "YOU KNOW TOILET PIPES GO TO...")
ASL is a TOPIC prone language
Whatever is the focus comes first with comments following (Topic-Comment)
Non-Manual-Markers (Failure to express NMMs results in confusion)
Voice of an utterance indicates relation of subject to the verb. English - Passive voice ASL - Active voice. Passive English forms are transformed into active ASL voice
Interpreters are responsible to keep interpretation vague if speaker intended it
ASL handshapes that show relationship of one noun to another
Less iconic or reduced proportion in size
Size and Shape Specifiers Classifiers - used to describe nouns that one cannot duplicate on paper in English.
Relationships of one noun to another
ASL- Classifiers English - Prepositions
English - 2 systems (Ordinal "1st, 2nd" and Cardinal "quantity") Often number neutral (we, us, them) ASL- 27 number systems. Often number specific (3 of us, 5 of us)
Valli and Lucas 1992
Wrote "Language Facets in Deaf Community" Termed Code Mixing/Contact Signing - frequent contact between ASL and English
Famous Interpreting Models to follow...
Models are unable to illustrate simultaneity and process of multitasking
Process models in simultaneous interpreting
"Triangular model of Interpreting" 1. Speaker expresses language 2. Interpreter reduces words to verbal sense (Transcoding) 3. Listener listens in language 2
Colonomos 1980, 83-84, 87
"Mental Activity" 1. Concentrate - Understand 2. Represent - Conceptualize "strip source language message" 3. Plan - Organize concepts and feelings into target language
Cokely 1985, 1992
Interpretation errors or "miscues" Omissions - Information that did not make it into the interpretation Additions - Interpretation contains personal input Substitutions - Skews meaning by making message more/less than it was Intrusions - Source language form or syntax skews target language Anomalies - Meaningless interpretation
"Dialogue Interpreting" Speech to speech automatic translation system (DMDIALOG is designed to handle simple telephone conversations) "Massively Parallel" system
Gish Model 1987
"Organization of Data" Speaker's goal - theme- objectives- units of support - details
5 steps of Interpreting Process
1. Take in source language 2. Identify deep structural meaning 3. Apply contextual/schema screen 4. Formulate target language utterance 5. Produce interpretation
"Filling in the blanks" of missed information. Helpful to have Bi-lingual Bi-cultural competence
Indication one is understanding or confused. "Head nod/shake, eye gaze"
"Critical Thinking" - critically analyze texts
Goal of Interpreting
Accurately identify deep structural meaning in the context of the participants personal schemas, perspectives, and philosophy
Group of people who share similar experiences or historical and social conditions.
Interpreters should be able to predict situations and appropriately prepare for what information is coming next
Association of Visual Language Interpreters of Canada
Ball State University Indiana - June 14, 1964
-1st RID meeting to discuss interpreter demand and list of qualified interpreters -Prominent Members were: Edgar Lowell and Ralph Hoag who proposed the idea of RID
Founders of RID were primarily
Deaf family members, CODAs, Deaf Teachers, and Clergy
Founding member of RID who wished to "rid the world of barriers"
Interpreters "for the deaf"?
Today practitioners refer to themselves as "sign language" interpreters rather than the term interpreters "for the Deaf"
Goal of RID
Promote the profession of interpreting and transliterating American Sign language and English
Mission of RID
Provide international, national, regional, state, and local forums and an organizational structure for the continued growth and development of the profession of interpretation and transliterating of ASL and English.
RID is committed to...
To increasing the number of interpreters, ensuring they are qualified to practice, and that they practice in accordance to professional standards
RID membership categories
1. Certified - Individuals who hold certification 2. Associate - Working interpreters not yet certified 3. Supporting - supporting role but not interpreters 4. Student - Individuals enrolled in a full time ITP 5. Organizational - Agencies or companies who support RID
Elected every two years. One affiliate chapter per state generally.
Association of Visual Language Interpreters of Canada (AVLIC) - Broader name than RID, 9 members every two years -Categories are: Active, Supporting, and Chapter
RID Interpreter Evaluation
Began in 1972 - Live interview and 2 interpreting samples - All certificates expired 5 years later unless: 1. Took a second evaluation 2. Successfully completed a specialist certificate
(1972) Interview above 75% but both performances below 75%
- Interpreting Certificate.Transliteration (IC or TC)
(1972) 75% or higher on both interview and performance
Comprehensive skills Certificate (CSC) - Considered to be fully certified
(1972) Interview 75% but only one performance above a 60%
- Interpreting Certificate.Transliteration (IC or TC)
(1972) If Deaf individuals received a 75% or higher
Reverse Skills Certificate (RSC) - Considered to be fully certified
RID Interpreter Evaluation Revised in 1989 - Written Test
Written test and videotaped skills demonstration - 150 multiple choice questions. (98 must be correct)
RID Interpreter Evaluation Revised in 1989 - Performance Test
1. Sign to Voice 2. Voice to Sign 3. Interactive Segment of Interpreting or Transliterating involving Deaf/hearing clients
(1989) Interpreting Skill Success
Certificate of Interpreting (CI)
(1989) Transliterating Skill Success
Certificate of Transliterating (CT)
(1989) Fully certified
Have both the CI and CT
Oral Transliteration Testing (1978-1983)
Performance included: 1. Paraphrasing and Transliterating a spoken message 2. Ability to read lips of a Deaf or hearing person
Oral Testing (1978-1983) 75% or higher on exam
Receive the Oral Interpreter Certificate:Comprehensive (OIC:C)
Oral Testing (1978-1983) If 75% on interview but below 75% on skills:
Oral Interpreter Certificate - Spoken to visible (OIC:S) Visible and Oral Interpreter Certificate: Visible to Spoken (OIC:VS)
Specialist Certificate: Legal
Specialist Certificate: Performing Arts
Masters Comprehensive Skills Certificate
Current Generalist Certification
Certified Deaf Interpreter - replaced the RSC and CDI:P in 2003
National Interpreter Certification (2001-Present)
National Association of the Deaf
NIC Written Exam
- 3 hours 150 questions, scaled score of 500 or better
If pass NIC Written Exam
"Candidate for certification" must complete performance exam within 5 years
NIC Performance Exam
Two parts: Professionalism Interview and Skills Exam - 5 signed ethical questions with a response in sign language - Answer graded on content not skill
NIC Performance Exam Skills Exam
5 interpreting scenarios either voice to sign or sign to voice
3 levels of NIC certification
1. NIC Professional - Professional level ethics and interpreting skills. 2. NIC Advanced - Professional ethical level and advanced skills 3. NIC Masters - Advanced ethical level and skill
2008 - All hearing applicants must have an AA degree 2012 - All hearing must have a bachelors degree while Deaf must have an AA 2016 - All applicants must have a bachelors degree
Oral Transliteration Certificate Exam (OTC)
1. Convey spoken English to someone who reads speech 2. Voicing over Deaf oral individuals 3. Facilitate interactive setting
Exam is 125 multiple choice questions and score must be above 89%
Specialist Certificate: Legal (SC:L) Present day requirements
1. NIC, Bachelors degree, 5 years experience, 50 hours of legal training - Must meet requirements above to take written/performance exam
Specialist Certificate: Legal (SC:L) Present day examination
Written exam - 100 questions with score of 77% Performance exam: 1. Miranda Warning 2. Courtroom Scene (criminal trial) 3. Process to deem if interpreter is qualified 4. Jury instructions
Canadian Evaluation System CES 1990 but revised in 2004
Education Interpreter Performance Assessment EIPA
Educational interpreter test looks at transliteration and interpretation including range of English systems. - EIPA level 3 is considered certified though some states are upping the level
Paris Peace Conference 1919 (WW1)
Historic use of Interpreters
1931 League of Nations Assembly
First use of simultaneous interpreting done through headphones
Wrote "A Dictionary of American Sign Language on Linguistic Principles" - This book led to formal recognition of ASL as a rule governed language
1965: PL 98-333
"Vocational Rehabilitation Act" - Sign Language interpreters required for Deaf clients of vocational rehab - marked beginning of paid interpreting opportunities in the US
1973: PL 93-112
"Rehab Act" Section 501, 503-504 - Defines handicapped individuals and their rights - Mandates fully accessible rehabilitation service to all disabled groups - Agencies receiving federal funding must be accessible for the disabled - Institutions of the government have to provide interpreters and accomodations
1975: PL 94-142
"Education for all Handicapped Children Act" - Require handicapped children to be educated in least restrictive environment - Mainstreaming of disabled children in public schools - Created many interpreting jobs in schools
1978: PL 95-539
"The Court of Interpreters Act" - Mandates use of only certified interpreters when non-English speaking litigants are involved in federal court
1978: PL 95-602
"Rehabilitation Amendments" - Section 101 mandates the use of personnel trained in the use of client's native tongue or communication mode. - Section 204 provides money that funds 12 federal interpreter education centers.
"Americans with Disabilities Act" - Applies concept of equal access to private businesses - ADA requires businesses of a certain minimum size to provide interpreters for Deaf employees
Hold client's interests paramount (professing values) higher than profit based markets
Behavioral standards that define what is judged appropriate/inappropriate or right/wrong
Code of Ethics and a Strong Moral/Ethical judgement
NAD-RID Code of Professional Conduct (2005)
1. Interpreters adhere to standards of confidential communication.
2. Interpreters possess the professional skills and knowledge required for the specific interpreting situation.
3. Interpreters conduct themselves in a manner appropriate to the specific interpreting situation.
4. Interpreters demonstrate respect for consumers.
5. Interpreters demonstrate respect for colleagues, interns, and students of the profession.
6. Interpreters maintain Ethical business practices.
7. Interpreters engage in professional development.
Interpreters do no harm but empower others by vesting control into the hands of the consumer.
-Accept only assignments for which we are qualified/able to do. - Sensitive to cross cultural communication dynamics - Confidential to build trust - Respect others opinions
Knowing one's limits and to be linguistically capable, flexible to adjust, cognizant of task, committed to further developing skill for the client
Ethical Decision Steps
1. List options 2. Identify consequences 3. Collect/Review Facts 4. Review consequences 5. Review options 6. Rank options 7. Act and review action taken later 8. Record for reference
Interpreting in an Educational Setting
-Workers placement may be mobile and in variety - More responsibility for class of younger students - If teacher lectures up front, interpreter should sit to the side and to the front of the teacher
Authentic Team Interpreting
There is continuous support. Don't switch out and leave
Small 1 on 1 Meetings
Interpreters should position themselves where they can be seen by the Deaf client as well as be heard by the hearing client - remember to stay clear of equipment
1 on 1 Interviews with desk
Interpreter should set beside and slightly behind non-Deaf person
Working with a DI
Interpreters should not bypass the DI's interpretation and voice interpret for the Deaf client directly
Medical Interpreting Setting
Highly mobile setting. Constant re-position to maintain visual communication and privacy. - If doctor leaves so does the interpreter - Stay with patient until fully anesthetized, lack of communication may be deadly. - If patient is face down sit near patients head maintaining eye contact
Legal Interpreting Setting
Interpreter must "make do" with placement - goal is to be beside main speaker Rapid turn taking Interpreters meeting as professionals to confer about legal interpreting does not constitute violation of confidentiality but is credible practice. Have separate interpreters for client attorney interactions as it avoids contamination of interpreter (Court may need to import another interpreter)
Psychiatric Interpreting Setting
Shoud be performed only with a Deaf Interpreter or Advocate -Brief sessions Ask for Therapist's goals beforehand
Theatrical Interpreting Setting
Standing stationary off stage is least desirable. If interpreters shadow the actors it provides close visual proximity - Difficult if rapid turn taking - Interpreters should attend practices to gain insight on character development and portraying personalities
By interpreting only sections of stage, characters lose consistency.
Best Theatrical Setting
Best to have Deaf actors and to voice interpret for them. - Double Stage approach
Purpose of Theatrical Interpreting
Requires you to compliment performances and support authentic access for Deaf. Job is NOT to entertain.
Video Relay Interpreting
Situations where Deaf individuals are making telephone calls to non-deaf. -Video Interpreters (VI)
Video Remote Interpreting
Provides an interpreter via video conferencing equipment who is able to see the Deaf client and hear the doctor
Team Interpreting Depends on 4 Factors
1. Length of assignment - typically longer than 50 minutes 2. Density or complexity of content 3. Size of room 4. Individuals who require tactileor close vision interpreting
Religious Interpreting Settings
No qualifications Heavy use of formal and frozen register Placement varies Supervision is infrequent
Religious Interpreting Ethics
Conveying religious content that may be against one own's beliefs. (Atheists should not interpret for Christian service)
Qualifications widely vary but preferably have certification. - Pay should include prep time and breaks - Deaf community has negative view of mainstreaming
Educational Interpreting Ethics
Broad role of responsibilities in classroom, there is a danger of becoming too familiar with students
Educational Interpreting role
Provide communication access which leads to independence, empowerment, and integration
"Call Out Fee"
Larger first hour fee with lessened fee for more hours. - Idea coined by Cheryl Palmer who lost money based on hourly pay
Point for the Interpreter
Satisfaction in job well done and in seeing authentic empowerment and inclusion of Deaf and HH people
Repetitive Strain Injury - warmup, exercise, break habits, watch working conditions - 10 min break for every 50 minutes - If assignment in longer than 2 hours have a team
Full time working receiving benefits
Working hourly for agency with no benefits
Self employed practitioner
part/full time woker
Claggett Statement 1984
Oppressed Deaf individuals in response to churches
National Associaltion of the DEaf
Code of Ethics/Professional Conduct
Conflict of Interests
Conflict of private interests and official responsibilities of the interpreter (Ex. Pro-life having to interpret an abortion)
Individuals part of interpreting situation either hearing or Deaf
Code of Ethics Rule #1
Interpreters adhere to standards of confidential communication - Position of trust to protect all involved - Exceptions include reporting abuse, threats, or subpoemas
Code of Ethics Rule #2
Interpreters possess professional skills and knowledge required for specific interpreting situations. - Interpreters stay abreast of evolving language use and trends in the profession and community
Code of Ethics Rule #3
Interpreters conduct themselves in a manner appropriate to the situation - Present themselves appropriate in manner and appearance -Avoid conflict interests
Code of Ethics Rule #4
Interpreters demonstrate respect for consumers - Interpreters are expected to honor consumer preferences in selection of interpreters and dynamic equivalence
Code of Ethics Rule #5
Interpreters demonstrate respect for colleagues, interns, and students of the profession - Collaborate with colleagues to foster the delivery f effective service -Assist and encourage, resolve unethical behavior
Code of Ethics Rule #6
Interpreters maintain ethical business practices in a professional manner
Code of Ethics Rule #7
Interpreters engage in professional development - Foster and maintain interpreting competence and the structure of the profession through ongoing development and skills
Stages of Moral Development
The complex whole including knowledge, belief, art, morals, laws, customs, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society
Culture and Communication
Both are inseperable - Culture is the foundation of communication. when cultures vary, communication practices also vary
the study of social and personal space
Study of the way something is said like intonation, speech rate, and silence
Study of body motions such as gestures, eye gaze, and facial expressions
The underlying principles behind mannerisms. They knit arbitrary acts into larger patterns and provide standards by which conduct can be evaluated by members of a culture. - Something that each culture has. Family and friends, ideas about nature, beliefs of people's roles, view of authority, beliefs of life.
Tone determines the meaning of a word
Rate of Speech (paralinguistics)
Tempo of speech. Slow or fast
Soft or loud spoken
Has affect on meaning and reception
Since our inclination is not to see things from another's perspective and to judge people negatively who are different than us, we may do well to double check our initial reactions in intercultural situations.
Emphasis on pooling resources, sharing of information, boundary between insiders and outsiders, loyalty and strong identification with the group. - One must generally be born or grow up within that culture to qualify. - Deaf culture is collectivist
I can only depend on myself. Heavy emphasis on personal choice while group membership is flexible. Always take responsibility for one own's actions. We identify with a group not because we must but because of the benefits it offers.
Giving and taking from the collective pool of skills in the group, can be a feature of collectivist culture
Collectivists who interact with individualists are cautioned that the written word carries greater importance in individualistic culture. Individualists take great pride in their own accomplishments while collectivists take pride in what the group accomplishes
Strict view of time. (American Hearing culture) Focus on one thing or person at a time. One on one attention is wanted. Have everything planned out and our time is scheduled. This treatment of time is not universal
Relaxed view of time. (Deaf culture) People carry on several conversations at the same time. Strong desire to keep in touch. If interpreters leave without chatting this can be considered rude.
English Subject-Predicate Style
Subject followed by verb and object
Topic gives background information and the context is needed to appreciate the new information or argument contained in the comment.
Hearing Americans - Facts and Numbers Deaf Culture - Testimonials from other Deaf friends
1. Contrasting Features - used for emphasis. State what it is as well as what it is not 2. Faceting - use of several synonyms to define subject 3. Reiteration - repeat same sign at beginning and end of sentence 4. Utilizing 3D space - more than one perspective 5. Explain with examples rather than defining 6. Couching/Nesting - Identify be description instead of labeling 7. Describe then Do - role shift to describe action
T/F Language can be separated from Culture
FALSE - Language cannot be easily separated from Culture
Bilingual Bicultural Approach
In the bilingual-bicultural program, it is advocated that children who are deaf be taught ASL as a first language, then be taught written and/or spoken English as a second language. Bilingual-bicultural programs emphasize that English and ASL are equal languages, and they work to help children develop age-appropriate levels of fluency in both languages. The bilingual-bicultural approach holds the belief that deaf children are visual learners as opposed to auditory learners. Therefore, classes should be conducted in a complete visual language
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